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==Procedure==
 
==Procedure==
 
'''Running the Gel'''
 
'''Running the Gel'''
#Wear protective gloves when handling gels and solutions
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#Wear protective gloves when handling gels and solutions  
#Determine amount of sample needed for 60 µg of protein in each electrophoresis sample
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#Determine amount of sample needed for x µg of protein in each electrophoresis sample  
#Prepare reducing sample
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#Turn on heating block to 70°C about 15 minutes before step 6.
##Sample x μl
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#Prepare 1000 ml of 1x NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer using NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer(20X) as follows in 1000mL Pyrex Bottle and mix thoroughly, Running Buffer:
##NuPAGE LDS Sample Buffer (4X) 2.5 μl
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1. NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer (20X MOPS) 50 ml
##NuPAGE® Reducing Agent (10X) 1 μl
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2. Deionized Water 950 ml
##Deionized Water to 6.5 μl
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3. Total Volume 1000 ml
##Total Volume 10 μl
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• Set aside 800 ml of the 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer for use in the lower (Outer) Buffer Chamber of the XCell SureLock Mini-Cell
##Notes: For reduced sample, add the reducing agent immediately prior to electrophoresis to obtain the best results. The presence of more glycerol also increases the viscosity of the NuPAGE® LDS Sample Buffer. By bringing the NuPAGE® LDS Sample Buffer to room temperature (25°C), the buffer is more manageable.
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• 200 ml of 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running for use in the Upper (Inner) Buffer Chamber of the XCell SureLock. Mini-Cell.
#Heat the sample for denaturing electrophoresis (reduced or non-reduced) at 70°C for 10 minutes for optimal results.
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• Keep at room temperature
#Prepare 1000 ml of 1x NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer using NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer(20X) as follows: Running Buffer:
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#Prepare reducing sample in this order (Total volume depends on strength of protein):
##NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer (20X MOPS) 50 ml
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1. Sample x μl
##Deionized Water 950 ml
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2. NuPAGE LDS Sample Buffer (4X) 4°C
##Total Volume 1000 ml
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3. NuPAGE® Reducing Agent (10X) 4°C
*Mix thoroughly and set aside 800 ml of the 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer for use in the lower (Outer) Buffer Chamber of the XCell SureLock Mini-Cell
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4. Maximum Total Volume 25 μl
*Immediately, prior to electrophoresis, add 500μ l of NuPAGE® Antioxidant to 200 ml of 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running for use in the Upper (Inner) Buffer Chamber of the XCell SureLock. Mini-Cell. Mix thoroughly.
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5. Notes: For reduced sample, add the reducing agent immediately prior to electrophoresis to obtain the best results. The presence of more glycerol also increases the viscosity of the NuPAGE® LDS Sample Buffer. By bringing the NuPAGE® LDS Sample Buffer to room temperature (25°C), the buffer is more manageable.  
#Remove the NuPAGE® Gel from the pouch
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# Heat the sample for denaturing electrophoresis (reduced or non-reduced) at 70°C for 10 minutes for optimal results.  
#Rinse the gel cassette with deionized water. Peel off the tape from the bottom of the cassette.
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# Remove the NuPAGE® Gel from the pouch  
#In one smooth motion, gently pull the comb out of the cassette
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# Rinse the gel cassette with deionized water 2x. Peel off the tape from the bottom of the cassette.  
#Rinse the sample wells with 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer. Invert the gel and shake to remove the buffer. Repeat two more times.
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# In one smooth motion, gently pull the comb out of the cassette  
#Orient the two gels in the Mini-Cell such that the notched well-side of the cassette faces inwards toward the Buffer Core. Seat the gels on the bottom of the Mini-Cell and lock into place with the Gel Tension Wedge.  
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# Fill the sample wells with 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer using loading tips to rinse. Invert the gel and shake to remove the buffer 2x. Load buffer into wells one more time to push all bubbles out.
#If you are using only one gel, the plastic Buffer Dam replaces the second gel cassette
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# Orient the two gels in the Mini-Cell such that the notched well-side of the cassette faces inwards toward the Buffer Core. Seat the gels on the bottom of the Mini-Cell and lock into place with the Gel Tension Wedge.
#Fill the Upper Buffer Chamber with a small amount of the running buffer to check for tightness of seal. If you detect a leak from Upper to Lower Buffer Chamber, discard the buffer, reseal the chamber, and refill.
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# If you are using only one gel, the plastic Buffer Dam replaces the second gel cassette  
#Once the seal is tight, fill the Upper Buffer Chamber (inner) with the appropriate 1X running buffer. The buffer level must exceed the level of the wells.
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# Fill the Upper Buffer Chamber with a small amount of the running buffer to check for tightness of seal. If you detect a leak from Upper to Lower Buffer Chamber, discard the buffer, reseal the chamber, and refill.  
#Load an appropriate volume of sample at the desired protein concentration onto the gel  
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# Once the seal is tight, fill the Upper Buffer Chamber (inner) with the appropriate 1X running buffer (200mL). The buffer level must exceed the level of the wells.  
#Load appropriate protein molecular weight markers
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# Load an appropriate volume of sample at the desired protein concentration onto the gel  
#Fill the Lower (outer) Buffer Chamber with 600 ml of 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer
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# Load appropriate protein molecular weight markers  
#Run the gel at 200 V constant. Run for 50-55 minutes. (Check for bubbles emerging from solution to see if electrophoresis is running.)
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# Fill the Lower (outer) Buffer Chamber with 600 ml of 1X NuPAGE® SDS Running Buffer  
 
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# Immediately run the gel at 60 mA/gel, max 100 V. Run for 50-55 minutes until samples run onto the foot of the gel. (Check for bubbles emerging from solution to see if electrophoresis is running.)  
'''Removing the Gel after Electrophorsis'''
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# Refer to step 1 and 2 of Western Blotting
#After electrophoresis is complete, shut off the power, disconnect electrodes, and remove gel(s) from the XCell SureLock. Mini-Cell
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Removing the Gel after Electrophorsis  
#Separate each of the three bonded sides of the cassette by inserting the Gel Knife into the gap between the cassette’s two plates. The notched (well) side of the cassette should face up.
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# After electrophoresis is complete, shut off the power, disconnect electrodes, and remove gel(s) from the XCell SureLock. Mini-Cell  
#Push down gently on the knife handle to separate the plates. Repeat on each side of the cassette until the plates are completely separated
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# Separate each of the three bonded sides of the cassette by inserting the Gel Knife into the gap between the cassette’s two plates. The notched (well) side of the cassette should face up.  
#Carefully remove and discard the top plate, allowing the gel to remain on the bottom (slotted) plate
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# Push down gently on the knife handle to separate the plates. Repeat on each side of the cassette until the plates are completely separated  
 
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# Carefully remove and discard the top plate, allowing the gel to remain on the bottom (slotted) plate  
'''Western Blotting'''
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'''Western Blotting '''
#Prepare 1000 ml of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer using the NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X) as follows:Transfer Buffer:
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# Prepare 1000 ml of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer using the NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X) as follows in 1000mL Pyrex bottle: Transfer Buffer:  
##NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X) 50 ml
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1. NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X) 50 ml at room temp
##NuPAGE® Antioxidant 1 ml
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2. Methanol (100 mL for 1 gel)  (200mL for 2 gels)
##Methanol 100 ml
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3. Deionized Water (849 mL for 1 gel)  (749 mL for 2 gels)
##Deionized Water 849 ml
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4. Total Volume 1000 ml  
##Total Volume 1000 ml
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5. Put in 4°C
#Use about 700 ml of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer to soak the pads until saturated. Remove the air bubbles by squeezing the pads while they are submerged in buffer. Removing the air bubbles is essential as they can block the transfer of biomolecules if they are not removed.
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# Use about 700 ml of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer to soak the pads until saturated during electrophoresis. Remove the air bubbles by squeezing the pads while they are submerged in buffer. Removing the air bubbles is essential as they can block the transfer of biomolecules if they are not removed.
#Cut selected transfer membrane and filter paper to the dimensions of the gel or use Novex® pre-cut membrane/filter paper sandwich
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# Put 650mL dH20 into 4°C for step 21.
#Pre-wet PVDF membrane for 30 seconds in methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol. Briefly rinse in deionized water, then place in a shallow dish with 50 ml of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer for several minutes
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# Cut selected transfer membrane and filter paper to the dimensions of the gel or use Novex® pre-cut membrane/filter paper sandwich.  Keep track of shiny side of transfer membrane
#Soak the filter paper briefly in 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer immediately prior to use.
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# Soak the filter paper and transfer membrane briefly in 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer immediately prior to use.
#Use the gel immediately following the run. Do not soak the gel in transfer buffer
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# Use the gel immediately following the run. Do not soak the gel in running buffer  
#After opening the gel cassette remove wells with the Gel Knife
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# After prying opening the gel cassette remove wells with the Gel Knife.  May run some transfer buffer over surface to remove air bubbles.
#Place a piece of pre-soaked filter paper on top of the gel, and lay just above the slot in the bottom of the cassette, leaving the foot of the gel uncovered. Keep the filter paper saturated with the transfer buffer and remove all trapped air bubbles by gently rolling over the surface using a glass pipette as a roller
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# Place a piece of pre-soaked filter paper on top of the gel, and lay just above the slot in the bottom of the cassette, leaving the foot of the gel uncovered. Keep the filter paper saturated with the transfer buffer and remove all trapped air bubbles by gently rolling over the surface using a glass pipette as a roller  
#Turn the plate over so the gel and filter paper are facing downwards over a gloved hand or clean flat surface
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# Turn the plate over so the gel and filter paper are facing downwards over parafilm or clean flat surface  
#Use the Gel Knife to push the foot out of the slot in the plate and the gel will fall off
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# Use the Gel Knife to push the foot out of the slot in the plate and the gel will peel off  
#When the gel is on a flat surface, cut the foot off the gel with the gel knife
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# When the gel is on a flat surface, cut the foot off the gel with the gel knife  
#Wet the surface of the gel with transfer buffer and position the pre-soaked transfer membrane on the gel, ensuring all air bubbles have been removed
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# Wet the surface of the gel with transfer buffer and position the pre-soaked transfer membrane shiny side down on the gel, ensuring all air bubbles have been removed  
#Place another pre-soaked anode filter paper on top of the membrane. Remove any trapped air bubbles
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# Place another pre-soaked anode filter paper on top of the membrane. Remove any trapped air bubbles  
#Place two soaked blotting pads into the cathode (-) core of the blot module. The cathode core is the deeper of the two cores and the corresponding electrode plate is a darker shade of gray. Carefully pick up the gel membrane assembly and place on blotting pad in the same sequence, such that the gel is closest to the cathode core (see Figure next page)
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# Place two soaked blotting pads into the cathode (-) core of the blot module. The cathode core is the deeper of the two cores and the corresponding electrode plate is a darker shade of gray. Carefully pick up the gel membrane assembly and place on blotting pad in the same sequence, such that the gel is closest to the cathode core (follow manual)  
#Add enough pre-soaked blotting pads to rise to 0.5 cm over rim of cathode core. Place the anode (+) core on top of the pads. The gel/membrane assembly should be held securely between the two halves of the blot module ensuring complete contact of all components
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# Add enough pre-soaked blotting pads to rise to 0.5 cm over rim of cathode core. Place the anode (+) core on top of the pads. The gel/membrane assembly should be held securely between the two halves of the blot module ensuring complete contact of all components  
#Position the gel/membrane assembly and blotting pads in the cathode core of the XCell II. Blot Module to fit horizontally across the bottom of the unit. There should be a gap of approximately 1 cm at the top of the electrodes when the pads and assembly are in place
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# Position the gel/membrane assembly and blotting pads in the cathode core of the XCell II. Blot Module to fit horizontally across the bottom of the unit. There should be a gap of approximately 1 cm at the top of the electrodes when the pads and assembly are in place  
#Hold the blot module together firmly and slide it into the guide rails on the lower buffer chamber. The blot module will only fit into the unit one way, so the (+) sign can be seen in the upper left hand corner of the blot module. Properly placed, the inverted gold post on the right hand side of the blot module will fit into the hole next to the upright gold post on the right side of the lower buffer chamber
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# Hold the blot module together firmly and slide it into the guide rails on the lower buffer chamber. The blot module will only fit into the unit one way, so the (+) sign can be seen in the upper left hand corner of the blot module. Properly placed, the inverted gold post on the right hand side of the blot module will fit into the hole next to the upright gold post on the right side of the lower buffer chamber  
#Place the Gel Tension Wedge so that its vertical face is against the blot module. Lock the Gel Tension Wedge by pulling the lever forward
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# Place the Gel Tension Wedge so that its vertical face is against the blot module. Lock the Gel Tension Wedge by pulling the lever forward  
#Fill the blot module with 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer until the gel/membrane assembly is covered in this buffer. Do not fill all the way to the top as this will only generate extra conductivity and heat
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# Fill the blot module with 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer until the gel/membrane assembly is covered in this buffer. Do not fill all the way to the top as this will only generate extra conductivity and heat  
#Fill the Outer Buffer Chamber with deionized water by pouring approximately 650 ml in the gap between the front of the blot module and the front of the lower buffer chamber. The water level should reach approximately 2 cm from the top of the lower buffer chamber. This serves to dissipate heat produced during the run
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# Fill the Outer Buffer Chamber with deionized water by pouring approximately 650 ml in the gap between the front of the blot module and the front of the lower buffer chamber. The water level should reach approximately 2 cm from the top of the lower buffer chamber. This serves to dissipate heat produced during the run  
#Place the lid on top of the unit
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# Place the lid on top of the unit  
#With the power turned off, plug the red and black leads into the power supply. Run the transfer at 30 Volts with an expected current of 170mA for 60 minutes
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# With the power turned off, plug the red and black leads into the power supply. Run the transfer at 10 Volts with an expected current of 100mA for 24 hours in 4°C in an ice bucket or for about 75 minutes room temp
 
   
'''Immunoblot Assay'''
 
'''Immunoblot Assay'''
#Rinse membrane twice with water
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# Rinse membrane twice with dwater
#Block membrane 20min at room temperature with agitation in freshly prepared 5% nonfat dry milk (Catalog 20-200) in TBS (TBS-MLK)
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# Block membrane 20min-2hours (depending on protein) at room temperature with agitation in freshly prepared 5% albumin (Catalog 20-200) in TBS (TBS-MLK)  
#Incubate membrane overnight at 4C with agitation and anti-Adipsin, diluted 1:200 in freshly prepared TBS-MLK
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# Incubate membrane overnight at 4°C with agitation and anti-x, diluted 1:2000 in freshly prepared TBS-MLK (dilution depends on protein)
#Wash membrane twice (5-10min each) with TBS
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# Wash membrane twice (5-10min each) with TBS-Tween
#Incubate membrane for 1hr at room temperation with agitation in anti-goat-HRP conjugate (1:2000 dilution in TBS)
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# Incubate membrane for 1hr at room temperation with agitation in anti-goat-HRP conjugate (1:2000 dilution in TBS) (dilution depends on protein) and Bio-rad precision protein Strep Tactin-HRP (1:30,000 dilution in TBS-Tween binds to protein ladder)
#Wash membrane 3x (5-10min each) with TBS
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# Wash membrane 3x (5-10min each) with TBS-Tween
 
   
'''Chemiluminescence Detection'''
 
'''Chemiluminescence Detection'''
#Mix 1 mL of Detection Reagent 1 and 2 (1 mL of each), with a pipette.  
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# Use Bio-rad Immu-star WesternC Chemiluminescent Kit.  Mix 6 mL of Detection Reagent 1 and 2 for each transfer membrane (1:1).  
#Pour over transfer membrane and leave on for one minute.  
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# Pour over transfer membrane and leave on for one minute.  
#Dry off with Kimwipe
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# Dry off with Kimwipe  
#Bring to the dark room and make sure the door is tightly closed (no light seeping through), before beginning
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# Bring to the imager.  Settings:
#Take out Kodak scientific imaging film and cut in half. Put the other half back in the box.
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# Exposure Type:  Precision
#Put Kodak film over transfer membrane in cassette and close cassette. Leave for one minute. (Note: Do not expose film to light. Keep lights off until film is in imaging machine)
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# Exposure Time:  Auto
#Put film into imaging machine to process
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# Sensitivity: Standard/High
#If nothing shows, put the film back into the cassette and leave it in for another 30 minutes. Check back to see if results show.
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# Method:  Chemiluminescence
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# Adjust brightness and focus >> Capture Image and save
    
==Contact==
 
==Contact==

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