File:BB total artificial heart.JPG
Bob Bouwer's schematic of a proposed total artificial heart (and the position of the own heart when the device is used as a ventricular assist device). Drawn are the 2 connecting pipes and pumps (motors with attached propellers). Either connecting pipe connects to the arteries coming from the mentioned body parts.
There are 4 motors with propellers (or even better piston-based blood pumps as these would last longer and require less or no anticoagulants to be taken *1) and 2 batteries, though only 2 motors (*2) and 1 battery are essential. The others are intented as redundant motors/batteries, to be switched on when the other motors/batteries break down. Switching on the redundant motors and deactivating the broken down ones is done by the printed circuit board (PCB).
The PCB and the batteries are implanted into the body (not connected to it from the outside). This, as the device is intented as a permanent device (so Destination Therapy; and not a "bridge to transplant"). It will thus also need regular recharging which can be done by a power cable running to outside the body, or (more preferably), via WiTriCity device, or Qi Wireless device.
Main benefit of the device (besides the permanent use and the greater reliability trough redundant parts) are that the parts can be made in larger quantities (no special artificial hearts need to be custom made, rather it can be made using regular ventricular assistive devices (VADs). This lowers price greatly. Also, there are very few parts (less prone to breakage, and less infection risk -as the whole is smaller-) and if surgery is needed again, only the part that broke down may need replacing, meaning the surgery is less invasive and the person can heal quicker. Most surgeries needed will require the batteries to be replaced. Not only are the batteries seperatly replacable, but they can also be have been implanted a bit away from the motors (positioned where the heart used to be), limiting infection risk even more.
All parts can be made from materials that do not cause rejection by the body (i.e. titanium, ...).
- 1: A reduction (or elimination) of the amount of anticoagulants would only be possible if the artificial blood vessels used in the pump are made not to cause erosion. A pulsatile pump is hereby better than a continuous flow pump in regards to durability. The piston-based pump should then have a large surface area, so that it causes relatively little erosion to the blood. The pulsatile pump can be made to work like a (solenoid-based) piston pump. It can even be made valveless (for example like the this), to make it last even longer (valves are often a weak point). The solenoids can be powered electrically from the PCB. Most TAH's in the past simply used compressed air to power the pulsatile pump, yet by using electricity to power it (from batteries), the system can be made small enough to build into the body.
- 2: Just one motor/pump can be sufficient in many cases, as the left and right side connects together. Still, using 2 motors is better as the motor (that sends blood to the lungs) can then be made to operate at a lower speed/propell less blood. For safety reasons, the motor/pump (that sends blood to the lungs) can be made able to operate at a same speed as the other motor (that sends blood to the limbs), so that if all motors break down, the motor (that sends blood to the lungs) can propell the same amount of blood as the one (that sends blood to the limbs), and the patient can survive (even in emergencies).
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|current||04:58, 16 September 2016||1,716 × 1,832 (336 KB)||Bob Bouwer||Showed position of own heart in schematic when used as ventricular assist device (VAD)|
|23:07, 19 August 2016||1,716 × 1,832 (304 KB)||Bob Bouwer||Bob Bouwer's schematic of a proposed total artificial heart. Drawn are the 2 connecting pipes and pumps (motors with attached propellers). Either connecting pipe connects to the arteries coming from the mentioned body parts. There are 4 motors with prop|
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