The function of a nanoreactor depends on what molecule it contains, and is also greatly affected by single molecule dynamics, different from the ones usually studied. Given that the conditions of the simulation can be changed, different conditions are able to be tested, varying its versatility.
What is the importance of a nanoreactor?
A nanoreactor combines many disciplines, like nanotechnology and biotechnology, in order to function just like a chemical reactor would, but at a much smaller scale.
How is it different from a normal reactor?
Existing on a nanometric scale, the reactor allows us to manipulate matter in a different way than at a macroscopic level. The use of enzymes and other molecules is essential, as they are the ones that perform all the different functions we need. Also, the enzyme kinetics in a specific space allows us to perfectly control the conditions for the reaction that takes place.
Are there other applications besides material synthesis?
This model can be applied beyond material synthesis, being able to perform a variety of multi-step processes such as biofuel production, emulsification, distillation, drug delivery, medical diagnosis and screening. Basically, all the things that can be done in a traditional reactor.
Mathematical model? Computer simulations? What are those?
Mathematics can be used to "model" or represent how something works in the real world. Granted, a model is not the same as the real thing, but with a we can make it good enough to be useful. It can start off very simple, and can be improved by adding more parameters. Mathematical models can get very complex, and so the mathematical rules are often written into computer programs, to make a computer model.
A computer simulation is the use of a model to reproduce the behavior of a system. When run on a computer, the chosen algorithm show the system's evolution, as it is conceptualized in the model, and according to the variables that were established. Of course, this is just a very narrow explanation of what these concepts entail.