Bio 210:Notebook/Examining Biological Life at AU

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Recently Edited Notebook Pages

2/29/16 Vertebrates Crow: Chordata sarcopterygii aves Corvus albicollis Frog: Chordata amphiba ranidae lithobates clamitans Snake: Chordata reptilia colubridae storeria dekayi Mice: Chordata mammalia rodentia apodemus agrarius Geese: Chordata aves anatidae branta canadensis

(see picture of food web) Crows would benefit from the mice and frogs, also would eat seeds/ some vegetation. Frog would benefit from invertebrates in transect. Snakes would benefit from the mice and frogs for food, as well as open sun areas to warm. Mice would benefit from seeds and vegetation/ food scrap. Geese would benefit from vegetation in transect. These vertebrates coexist in the same area, some benefiting from others, forming a community. The carrying capacity of one organism can be effected by the presence of the other organisms. For example if the carrying capacity for a crow increased, the population numbers of the mice, frogs, and snakes would probably decrease.


Invertebrates 2/22/16 Organism (phylum and class), Length in mm, Number in sample, Description of Organism 1. Arthropoda/Thysanura, 180mm, 6, 6 segmented body, 6 legs, brown, thin tail 2. Arthropoda/Insecta, 100mm, 1, Clear wings, brown segmented body, no antenna 3. Arthropoda/Arachnida, 260mm, 2, Grayish brown with black spots, hairy legs, 8 legs, segmented body 4. Arthropoda/Insecta, 50mm, 1, Yellow, big eyes, two antennas, 6 legs, no wings 5. Arthropoda/Insecta, 80mm, 3, Purpleish, segmented body, antenna, black eyes

The range of sizes was from 50mm (yellow Insecta) to 260mm (grayish brown Arachniola). So all of the organisms in the leaf litter were relatively small insects. All of our organisms we investigated were Arthropods. The two different samples were similar, the only difference was that the winged insects were only on the top layer, probably because their wings/increased surface area with little added weight helped them float on the top.

Vertebrates that could inhabit the transect, phylum, class, order, family, genus-species, biotic/abiotic benefits Mouse, Chordata, mammalia, rodentia, muridae, mus musculoides, could eat seeds/ small plants in garden and hide in shrubs Frog, chordata, amphibia, ecclesia, ranidae, litlobates clomitans, could eat invertebrates and use water held on leafs Snake, chordata, reptilla, squamata, colubridae, storeria dekayi, could eat frogs/ mice and warm up in open area sun Crow, chordata, aves, passeriformes, corvidae, cravus brachyrhunchos, could eat vegetation and frogs/mice potentially small snake Goose, chordata, aves, anseriformes, anatidae, branta canadensis, could eat vegitation

These animals form a community because they interact with each other in the same area. The relevance of carrying capacity is that the transect could only support so much frogs, geese, and mice because of its vegetation resources, meaning those mice and frogs can only feed so many snakes and crows. Therefore the vegetation is a producer, the mice, geese, and frogs are primary consumers, the snakes are secondary producers, and the crow is a secondary/tertiary consumer, and invertebrates are likely decomposers. MS

Plant Vascularization 2/15/16 Plant Number, location, Description, Vascularization, specialized structures, mechanisms of reproduction, height Plant 1, front left bed, green widest long, dicot, no, no, 6 inches Plant 2, back left bed, green wide longest, dicot, no, no, 4 inches Plant 3, front left bed, long, skinny, dark green, monocot, no, no, three inches Plant 4, front right bed, long skinny green, monocot, no, no, three inches Plant 5, by fence, short broad brown, dicot, flower, assumed pollen in flower, two inches

Plant 1 is a wide half an oval shape with just one leaf in a cluster. Plant 2 is also wide and almost circular with just one leaf in a cluster Plant 3 is skinny at first but then widens out, then returns to be somewhat skinny with one leaf in a cluster. Plant 4 is a long skinny leaf that stays about the same width throughout, only one leaf in a cluster. Plant 5 is a oval with one side ending skinny, has jagged edges, three leafs to a cluster.

Fungi sporangia are the site in a fungi/ plant where spores are formed via meiosis. They are important because spores are the gametes for the fungi and are essential for the reproduction/ spread of the fungi. The picture posted of a fungi under a microscope is a rod like structure with a lot of spherical shaped units branched together off of one end. This seems to be a fungus because it grew upward and had globe like structures. MS

Dilution Results 2/8/16 Dilution, # of Colonies on Plate, Colonies/ml 10^-3 nt, 1 lawn, too many to count 10^-5 nt, 200, 20,000,000 colonies/ml 10^-7 nt, 16, 160,000,000 colonies/ml 10^-9 nt, 0, 0 colonies/ml 10^-3 t, 40, 40,000 colonies/ml 10^-5 t, 4, 400,000 colonies/ml 10^-7 t, 0, 0 colonies/ml 10^-9 t, 0, 0 colonies/ml

There is a significant difference in the plates with antibiotic and those without antibiotic. The plates without antibiotic had a lot more bacterial growth than the plates with the tetracycline. This means that some of the bacteria were able to survive the treatment of the antibiotics because some bacteria still grew on the plate with antibiotics. However a lot of bacteria was still inhibited to grow based on the fact that there was a lot more colonies on the plates without tetracycline. Based on the numbers of the first dilutions in each, about 1 out of 500 bacteria were unaffected by the tetracycline.

The mechanisms of action used by tetracycline are used to resist first and second generation compounds of the bacteria. It does this using ribosomal protection as well as efflux-based mechanisms. Bacteria with mitochondria are found to be especially sensitive to tetracycline compared to other bacteria that do not have mitochondria. This is becuase tetracycline inhibits the protein synthases in the bacteria's mitochondria. ( MS

Hay Infusion 1/31/16 The hay infusion looked had different layers of appearance. The top layer was a thin film like substance. The middle layer was dirty water that was slightly transparent with some grass/pine needles standing up in it. Finally the third layer was a settled pile of dirt/ mulch. The smell was swampy, it smelled like rotting leaves. There appeared to be some mold growing on the side of the container around/above the top level of the hay infusion. We took samples from the top and the bottom of the hay infusion. The top appeared to have more plantlike, this is significant because plant life can attract some microorganisms while on the bottom that lacked plantlike will attract different microorganisms.

(See picture with chart of microorganisms found)

The pandorina is alive because it produces its own energy, is made up of cells, has information in it (DNA), can replicate, and can pass on/ is a result of evolution thanks to replication and the passing of information that goes along with it.

If this hay infusion were to be left alone for two months, there would be a greater number of microorganisms. However the increase in microorganisms will plateau at some point over the two months due to limited resources and competition. The competition will occur because there is limited space and food/ resources.

100 microliters+ 10 milliliters= 10^-2 (10-3 plate)-> 10^-4 (10-5 plate)-> 10^-6 (10-7 plate)-> 10^-8 (10-9 plate) MS

Taking Transect Samples 1/26/16

My transect was located on American University's campus. The transect was part of the community garden. The topography of the transect was: a dirt and mulch floor with a small amount of snow on it, with six wooden plant beds that was filled with dirt and varying vegetation. There is a fence in the front of the transect with some vegetation along the edge of it.

Biotic: grass, lettuce, broccoli, shrubs, microorganisms Abiotic: dirt, wood, pine needles, water/snow, fence