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## Bayesian model of univariate linear regression for QTL detection

See Servin & Stephens (PLoS Genetics, 2007).

• Data: let's assume that we obtained data from N individuals. We note the (quantitative) phenotypes (e.g. expression level at a given gene), and the genotypes at a given SNP (as allele dose, 0, 1 or 2).

• Goal: we want to assess the evidence in the data for an effect of the genotype on the phenotype.

• Assumptions: the relationship between genotype and phenotype is linear; the individuals are not genetically related; there is no hidden confounding factors in the phenotypes.

• Likelihood:

with:

where is in fact the additive effect of the SNP, noted from now on, and is the dominance effect of the SNP, .

Let's now write in matrix notation:

where

which gives the following conditional distribution for the phenotypes:

• Priors: conjugate

• Joint posterior:

• Conditional posterior of B:

Here and in the following, we neglect all constants (e.g. normalization constant, , etc):

We use the prior and likelihood and keep only the terms in :

We expand:

We factorize some terms:

Let's define . We can see that , which means that is a symmetric matrix. This is particularly useful here because we can use the following equality: .

This now becomes easy to factorizes totally:

We recognize the kernel of a Normal distribution, allowing us to write the conditional posterior as: