User:Sammy Saqer/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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February 16, 2014: Introduction: The third lab of this section is called "Microbiology and Identifying Bacteria with DNA". The purpose of this lab is to understand the characteristics f bacteria, to observe anibiotic resistance, and to understand how DNA sequences are used to identify species.

Material and Methods: The materials needed for this lab are as follows: 7 agar plates from the last lab, hay infusion culture, microscope, slides, cover slips, bin, gram staining material, materials for PCR reactions, sterile loops, and micropipets.The first part of this lab is to analyze the agar plates and count the bacteria colonies on each and fill out the chart. Then to analyze the differences of the plates with and without the tetracycline. Next is to label colonies with a wax pencil and then use those colonies on a wet mount and analyze their characteristics under a microscope. Lastly, prepare a gram test on the wet mounts and prepare a PCR reaction for the next lab.

Observations and Data: The agar plates seem to have evaporated water on the glass and some dirt seems to be missing. The agar plates with the tetracycline had less colonies than the plates without. Also, the plates with tetracycline has only convex, circular orange colonies, while the other plate without has many different shaped colonies of blue, white, and orange. IMG 8834.jpg IMG 8836.jpg IMG 8839.jpg The Fusiform Bacilli tested gram negative, the figure C. spirilum from the white colony tested gram positive, and the figure C. spirlilum from the orange colony tested gram negative.

Conclusion: There was significant difference in the bacteria grown with tetracycline and without. This procedure can be helpful to learn more of antibiotic resistance and the growth of bacteria.

February 9, 2014: Introduction: The second lab of this section is called "Identifying Algae and Protists". The purpose of this lab is to understand how to use a dichotomous key and to understand the characteristics of Algae and Protists.

Materials and Methods: The materials needed for this lab are as follows: microscope, slides, slide covers, two page dichotomous key, protozoa, 4 sterile 10 mL tubes, micropipettes, hay infusion culture, and agar plates. The first part of this lab is to place the protozoa on a slide and then view it under a microscope. Using the dichotomous key, label the organisms observed under the microscope. The second part of the lab is to place the liquid from the jar with the 50 mL sample from the transect onto a agar plate. Then prepare 100 fold dilutions of the hay infusion culture.

Observations and Data: After observing the protozoa under the microscope, there was paramecium multimicronucleatum (220 um) and blepharisma sp. (480um). Next was the observation of the culture in the jar. The water was brown and foggy. There seemed to be no life in the jar, only floating grass and dirt. Next the water from the top of the jar was observed under the microscope, showing there was peranema sp., colpidium and pandorina. The bottom of the jar contained pandorina, paramecium bursaria, and chilomonas sp.. The only mobile organisms were the colpidium and pandorina in the top of the jar. If the infusion was observed for two more months, then the organisms already in the jar would reproduce to fill the jar with more of their species. Selective pressures from the jar can include lack of sunlight, wetness, and lack of air in closed jar. IMG 8791.JPG

February 9, 2014: Introduction: The first lab is called "Biological Life at AU". The purpose of this lab is to understand natural selection and the biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche.

Materials and Methods:The materials needed for this lab are as follows: microscope, slides, slide covers, pipettes, a sample of chlamydomonas, a sample of gonium, a sample of volvox, and 50 mL tube. The first part of the lab is to place a drop of chlamydomonas, gonium, and volvox each on a different slide and place a slide cover on top. After a slide is made for each organism, then the next step is to observe each slide under a microscope and mark their characteristics. The second part of the lab is to collect soil or surface plant sample in the 40 mL tube from a transect, which is a 20x20 foot area given by the lab instructor, and observe the general characteristics of the transect.

Observations and Data: When observing the volvocine line, it is clear that the species becomes more complex as it evolves. Although evolution does not always lead to a more complex species in nature, it does in the volvocine line. The chlamydomonas is the least complex, with the least amount of colonies. Then comes the gonium, with a a more complex nature than the chlamydomonas and more colonies. Lastly, the most complex organism is the volvox with the most colonies of the three. After observing transect 5, there were many observable characteristics. Transect 5 is located in front of Hurst in Eric Friedheim Quadrangle. The topography of the land is generally flat with grass and concrete. There is a mound where the soil is piled up under the bush. The biotic factors are grass, bushes, bugs, and weeds. The abiotic factors are concrete, stones, bench, rocks, sign, soil, litter, and fallen leaves.