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|style="background-color: #EEE"|[[Image:owwnotebook_icon.png|128px]]<span style="font-size:22px;"> PVOH Research</span>
 
|style="background-color: #EEE"|[[Image:owwnotebook_icon.png|128px]]<span style="font-size:22px;"> PVOH Research</span>
|style="background-color: #F2F2F2" align="center"|<html><img src="/images/9/94/Report.png" border="0" /></html> [[{{#sub:{{FULLPAGENAME}}|0|-11}}|Main project page]]<br />{{#if:{{#lnpreventry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}|<html><img src="/images/c/c3/Resultset_previous.png" border="0" /></html>[[{{#lnpreventry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}{{!}}Previous entry]]<html>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</html>}}{{#if:{{#lnnextentry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}|[[{{#lnnextentry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}{{!}}Next entry]]<html><img src="/images/5/5c/Resultset_next.png" border="0" /></html>}}
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|style="background-color: #F2F2F2" align="center"|[[File:Report.png|frameless|link={{#sub:{{FULLPAGENAME}}|0|-11}}]][[{{#sub:{{FULLPAGENAME}}|0|-11}}|Main project page]]<br />{{#if:{{#lnpreventry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}|[[File:Resultset_previous.png|frameless|link={{#lnpreventry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}]][[{{#lnpreventry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}{{!}}Previous entry]]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}{{#if:{{#lnnextentry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}|[[{{#lnnextentry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}{{!}}Next entry]][[File:Resultset_next.png|frameless|link={{#lnnextentry:{{FULLPAGENAME}}}}]]}}
 
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<!-- ##### DO NOT edit above this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->
 
<!-- ##### DO NOT edit above this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->
==PVOH Film Preparations==
+
==OBJECTIVES==
'''Prepared PVOH films in water:'''
+
* Continue preparing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for experimental analysis
* In 10mL beaker, weigh out ~ 0.5 grams PVOH (MW 130,000)
+
* Prepare and replenish new surfactant exchanged clays
'''(Actual Mass = 0.4934g)'''
+
* Then, using a graduated cylinder add ~ 3 mL H<sub>2</sub>O to the beaker
+
==PVOH 130K Prepared Hydrogel Samples==
* In another 10mL beaker, weigh out ~ 1.0 gram PVOH (MW 130,000)
+
{| {{table}}
'''(Actual Mass = 0.9965g)'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''PVOH vs. Clay Ratio'''
* Then, using a graduated cylinder add ~ 5 mL H<sub>2</sub>O to the beaker
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Clay Selection'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''PVOH 130K Mass (g)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Actual Clay Mass (g)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''H<sub>2</sub>O Added (mL)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Dye Concentration (mM)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Dye Amount Added (μL)'''
 +
|-
 +
| 90:10||50% CEC NaMT w/ Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>||0.92966||0.09990||6.0||92||65.5
 +
|-
 +
| 50:50||50% CEC NaMT w/ Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>||0.50610||0.50010||6.0||165||36.4
 +
|-
 +
| 90:10||NaMT||0.89910||0.10020||6.0||92||65.5
 +
|-
 +
| 50:50||NaMT||0.50070||0.49960||6.0||165||36.4
 +
|-
 +
| 90:10||Laponite||0.91610||0.10040||6.0||92||65.5
 +
|-
 +
| 50:50||Laponite||0.49900||0.50090||6.0||165||36.4
 +
|-
 +
| 90:10||110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR||0.89970||0.10050||6.0||92||65.5
 +
|-
 +
| 50:50||110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR||0.49920||0.49910||6.0||165||36.4
 +
|-
 +
| 90:10||110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR||0.90080||0.09990||6.0||92||65.5
 +
|-
 +
| 50:50||110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR||0.49980||0.49980||6.0||165||36.4
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Preparations For Clay - Surfactant Exchanged Soils==
 +
'''(Important Information and Notes About Clay)'''
 +
# Clay is made from silicon dioxide
 +
# If ions within the clay are changed, then clay absorbance, color, and exchange functions are affected
 +
'''(Such ions incldue: Al<sup>3+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Si<sup>2+</sup>, Li<sup>+</sup>, and Fe<sup>2+ or 3+</sup>,)'''
 +
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 
 +
* In a 100mL closed cap beaker, weigh out ~ 2 grams of NaMT clay to do a 110% ion exchange with DMHXLBR
 +
 
 +
* Next, complete calculations to determine how much DMHXLBR will be needed to complete '''110% exchange'''
 +
 
 +
  '''1.9999 g NaMT x (92 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol DMHXLBR/1000 meqv) x (110/100)% x (431.45 g DMHXLBR/1 mol DMHXLBR) = 0.8732 g DMHXLBR'''
 +
 
 +
* Then add a stir bar along with ~ 25mL of both H<sub>2</sub>O and ethanol to the clay and surfactant DMHXLBR mixture
 +
* Afterwards, cap the beaker and begin stirring the solution on a stir plate for ~ 1 week
 +
 
 +
'''(Repeat the entire process again in order to complete a 110% exchange with laponite clay and surfactant DMHXLBR)'''
 +
* Complete calculations to determine how much Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup> will be needed to complete '''50% exchange'''
 +
 
 +
  '''2.9672 g NaMT x (55 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol DMHXLBR/1000 meqv) x (110/100)% x (431.45 g DMHXLBR/1 mol DMHXLBR) = 0.7745 g DMHXLBR'''
 +
 
 +
'''(Repeat the entire process again in order to complete a 50% exchange with NaMT clay and surfactant, Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>)'''
 +
* Complete calculations to determine how much Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup> will be needed to complete '''50% exchange'''
 +
 
 +
  '''2.0001 g NaMT x (92 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>/1000 meqv) x (50/100)% x (507.65 g Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>/1 mol Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>) = 0.4671 g Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>'''
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{| {{table}}
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Surfactant Exchange Ratio'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Clay Selection'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Surfactant Selection'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Actual Clay Mass (g)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Actual Surfactant Mass (g)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''H<sub>2</sub>O Added (mL)'''
 +
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Ethanol Added (mL)'''
 +
|-
 +
| 50%||(NaMT)||Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>||2.0001||0.4676||25||25
 +
|-
 +
| 110%||NaMT||DMHXLBR||1.9999||0.79080||50||50
 +
|-
 +
| 110%||Laponite||DMHXLBR||2.9672||0.77470||50||50
 +
|}
  
'''Standard PVOH Film Protocol:'''
+
==Notes==
* After adding and combining PVOH (MW 130,000) in small beakers with H<sub>2</sub>O, add stir bars and prepare to stir solution.
+
* Two types of clay that were used included:  
* On hot plate, stir and heat both beaker solutions at 70-80°C for ~ 12 min or until PVOH dissolves.
+
    # Laponite
* Once PVOH solids thoroughly dissolve in solution, pour each solution in a Teflon dish to sit, cool, and dry in a fume hood for ~ 1 day.  
+
    # Sodium Montmorrillonite (NaMT)
 +
* Two types of surfactants that were used included:
 +
    # Tributyl hexadecyl phosphonium bromide (Bu<sub>3</sub>HdP<sup>+</sup>)
 +
    # Methyl 16 bromohexadecanoate (DMHXLBR)
 +
* Surfactant exchanged clays were prepared based upon the exchange ratios and calculations.
 +
* For the 110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR actually 50mL of each of both ethanol and water was used.
 +
* For the 110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR actually 50mL of each of both ethanol and water was used.
 +
* For the 50:50 110% CEC Laponite in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 3mL of H<sub>2</sub>O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 54.5μL of 165μM added.
 +
* For the 50:50 110% CEC NaMT in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 2mL of H<sub>2</sub>O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 48.5μL of 165μM added.
 +
* For the 90:10 110% CEC NaMT in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 2mL of H<sub>2</sub>O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 87.0μL of 92μM added.
  
'''Notes:'''
 
* An additional 2-3 mL H<sub>2</sub>O was added to each solution to aid the dissolving of the PVOH
 
* Heat was reduced when solutions began to boil too rapidly
 
* While transferring solutions to Teflon dishes, loss of sample within the small beakers (sample loss = incomplete sample transfer)
 
  
  

Latest revision as of 21:26, 26 September 2017

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OBJECTIVES

  • Continue preparing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for experimental analysis
  • Prepare and replenish new surfactant exchanged clays

PVOH 130K Prepared Hydrogel Samples

PVOH vs. Clay Ratio Clay Selection PVOH 130K Mass (g) Actual Clay Mass (g) H2O Added (mL) Dye Concentration (mM) Dye Amount Added (μL)
90:10 50% CEC NaMT w/ Bu3HdP+ 0.92966 0.09990 6.0 92 65.5
50:50 50% CEC NaMT w/ Bu3HdP+ 0.50610 0.50010 6.0 165 36.4
90:10 NaMT 0.89910 0.10020 6.0 92 65.5
50:50 NaMT 0.50070 0.49960 6.0 165 36.4
90:10 Laponite 0.91610 0.10040 6.0 92 65.5
50:50 Laponite 0.49900 0.50090 6.0 165 36.4
90:10 110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR 0.89970 0.10050 6.0 92 65.5
50:50 110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR 0.49920 0.49910 6.0 165 36.4
90:10 110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR 0.90080 0.09990 6.0 92 65.5
50:50 110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR 0.49980 0.49980 6.0 165 36.4

Preparations For Clay - Surfactant Exchanged Soils

(Important Information and Notes About Clay)

  1. Clay is made from silicon dioxide
  2. If ions within the clay are changed, then clay absorbance, color, and exchange functions are affected

(Such ions incldue: Al3+, Mg2+, Si2+, Li+, and Fe2+ or 3+,)


  • In a 100mL closed cap beaker, weigh out ~ 2 grams of NaMT clay to do a 110% ion exchange with DMHXLBR
  • Next, complete calculations to determine how much DMHXLBR will be needed to complete 110% exchange
  1.9999 g NaMT x (92 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol DMHXLBR/1000 meqv) x (110/100)% x (431.45 g DMHXLBR/1 mol DMHXLBR) = 0.8732 g DMHXLBR
  • Then add a stir bar along with ~ 25mL of both H2O and ethanol to the clay and surfactant DMHXLBR mixture
  • Afterwards, cap the beaker and begin stirring the solution on a stir plate for ~ 1 week

(Repeat the entire process again in order to complete a 110% exchange with laponite clay and surfactant DMHXLBR)

  • Complete calculations to determine how much Bu3HdP+ will be needed to complete 50% exchange
  2.9672 g NaMT x (55 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol DMHXLBR/1000 meqv) x (110/100)% x (431.45 g DMHXLBR/1 mol DMHXLBR) = 0.7745 g DMHXLBR

(Repeat the entire process again in order to complete a 50% exchange with NaMT clay and surfactant, Bu3HdP+)

  • Complete calculations to determine how much Bu3HdP+ will be needed to complete 50% exchange
  2.0001 g NaMT x (92 meqv/100 g NaMT) x (1 mol Bu3HdP+/1000 meqv) x (50/100)% x (507.65 g Bu3HdP+/1 mol Bu3HdP+) = 0.4671 g Bu3HdP+


Surfactant Exchange Ratio Clay Selection Surfactant Selection Actual Clay Mass (g) Actual Surfactant Mass (g) H2O Added (mL) Ethanol Added (mL)
50% (NaMT) Bu3HdP+ 2.0001 0.4676 25 25
110% NaMT DMHXLBR 1.9999 0.79080 50 50
110% Laponite DMHXLBR 2.9672 0.77470 50 50

Notes

  • Two types of clay that were used included:
    # Laponite
    # Sodium Montmorrillonite (NaMT)
  • Two types of surfactants that were used included:
    # Tributyl hexadecyl phosphonium bromide (Bu3HdP+)
    # Methyl 16 bromohexadecanoate (DMHXLBR)
  • Surfactant exchanged clays were prepared based upon the exchange ratios and calculations.
  • For the 110% CEC Laponite w/ DMHXLBR actually 50mL of each of both ethanol and water was used.
  • For the 110% CEC NaMT w/ DMHXLBR actually 50mL of each of both ethanol and water was used.
  • For the 50:50 110% CEC Laponite in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 3mL of H2O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 54.5μL of 165μM added.
  • For the 50:50 110% CEC NaMT in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 2mL of H2O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 48.5μL of 165μM added.
  • For the 90:10 110% CEC NaMT in PVOH 130K solution when making hydrogels, an extra 2mL of H2O was added; therefore, the dye amount added had to be increased, ~ 87.0μL of 92μM added.