# User:Karlena L. Brown/Notebook/PVOH Research/2012/09/28

< User:Karlena L. Brown‎ | Notebook‎ | PVOH Research‎ | 2012‎ | 09
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## OBJECTIVES

1. Run X-ray Diffraction of 2:1 Clay-α-Fe2O4
2. Calculate the amount of Na+ ions in the 2000ppm SO42- solution
3. Calculate the amount of Cu2+ ions in the 2000ppm SO42- solution
4. Calculate the amount of Na+ ions in the 20ppm SO42- solution
5. Calculate the amount of Cu2+ ions in the 20ppm SO42- solution

## Na+ and Cu2+ Ion Calculations in 2000ppm SO42- Solutions

• Calculations
```  MW Na2SO4: 142.04 g/mol
MW Na+: 22.99 g/mol
Mass Na+: 0.00150 g Na2SO4 × (1 mol Na2SO4/142.04 g Na2SO4) × (2 mol Na+/1 mol Na2SO4) × (22.99 g Na+/1 mol Na+) = 4.856 × 10-4 g Na+
Actual concentration of Na+ in 2020 ppm SO4-2 solution:
(4.856 × 10-4 g Na+)/0.5 L × 106 = 971 ppm
```

```  MW CuSO4·5H2O: 249.69 g/mol
MW Cu+2: 63.55 g/mol
0.00252 g CuSO4·5H2O × (1 mol CuSO4·5H2O/249.68 g CuSO4·5H2O) × (1 mol Cu+2/1 mol CuSO4·5H2O) × (63.55 g Cu+2/1 mol CuSO4·5H2O) = 6.41 × 10-4 g Cu+2
Actual concentration of Cu+2 in 2020 ppm SO4-2 solution:
(6.41 × 10-4 g Cu+2)/0.5 L × 106 = 1283 ppm Cu+2
(1283 ppm)(5.16 mL) = (M2)(0.5 L)
M2 = 13.2 ppm Cu+2
```

## Na+ and Cu2+ Ion Calculations in 20ppm SO42- Solutions

```  (971 ppm)(0.00495 L) = (M2)(0.5 L)
M2 = 9.61 ppm Na+
```

Notes:

• An additional 2-3 mL H2O was added to each solution to aid the dissolving of the PVOH
• Heat was reduced when solutions began to boil too rapidly
• While transferring solutions to Teflon dishes, loss of sample within the small beakers (sample loss = incomplete sample transfer)