- MiRNAs are believed to be important in oncogenesis, as different groups of miRNAs act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Changes in miRNA expression have been detected in many types of human cancers, in a way that seems to be linked to genomic amplifications, mutations, and deletions. "MiRNA expression fingerprints correlate with clinical and biological characteristics of tumours, including tissue type, differentiation, aggression and response to therapy." 
- Some organisms use miRNA to target and inhibit sections of bacterial DNA.
- Calin, George A., and Carlo M. Croce. "MicroRNA signatures in human cancers." Nature Reviews Cancer 6.11 (2006): 857-866.
- Ma, Feng, et al. "The microRNA miR-29 controls innate and adaptive immune responses to intracellular bacterial infection by targeting interferon-γ."Nature immunology 12.9 (2011): 861-869.