Difference between revisions of "Streptomyces:Other Bits/Useful Molecular and Chemical Equations"

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The difference between formula weight and molecular weight depends on the compound. It is correct to refer to a compound such as Benzene having a molecular weight or formula weight. It is incorrect to refer to sodium chloride having a molecular weight as NaCl exists as an ionic compound (Na<sup>+</sup> Cl<sup>-</sup>) not as a molecular compound. In this case it is more precise to refer to sodium chloride’s formula weight.
 
The difference between formula weight and molecular weight depends on the compound. It is correct to refer to a compound such as Benzene having a molecular weight or formula weight. It is incorrect to refer to sodium chloride having a molecular weight as NaCl exists as an ionic compound (Na<sup>+</sup> Cl<sup>-</sup>) not as a molecular compound. In this case it is more precise to refer to sodium chloride’s formula weight.
 
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'''Avogadro’s Number & mole'''
 
'''Avogadro’s Number & mole'''
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<center> <math>n=\frac {m}{FW}</math> </center>  
 
<center> <math>n=\frac {m}{FW}</math> </center>  
 
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'''Molarity – Molar Concentration'''
 
'''Molarity – Molar Concentration'''
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</center>
 
</center>
 
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'''Primer Calculations'''
 
'''Primer Calculations'''
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</center>
 
</center>
 
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'''Weight / mole Percentage'''
 
'''Weight / mole Percentage'''
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<math>Cl=\frac {1}{2}*100=50%</math>
 
<math>Cl=\frac {1}{2}*100=50%</math>
 
</center>
 
</center>
 
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'''Density and Specific Gravity'''
 
'''Density and Specific Gravity'''
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D<sub>2</sub> = Density of H<sub>2</sub>O @ 4&#176;C = 1.00g/cc
 
D<sub>2</sub> = Density of H<sub>2</sub>O @ 4&#176;C = 1.00g/cc
 
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'''Molarity, Specific Gravity and Percentage Composition'''
 
'''Molarity, Specific Gravity and Percentage Composition'''
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{| cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"  
 
{| cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"  
 
|-
 
|-
! style="width: 150px;"| Chemical Name || style="width: 150px;"| Formula weight || style="width: 150px;"| Percentage Composition || style="width: 100px;"| Specific ||
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! style="width: 150px;"| Chemical Name || style="width: 150px;"| Formula weight || style="width: 150px;"| Percentage Composition || style="width: 100px;"| Specific Gravity ||
 
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| colspan="4"|
 
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Percentage composition means xg of pure compound per 100g of solution, i.e. 37g/100ml = 37%.  
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Percentage composition means ''x''g of pure compound per 100g of solution, i.e. 37g/100ml = 37%.  
 
To calculate the molarity, the mass of pure compound is needed; however the solution’s specific gravity needs to be taken into account, and the volume; which we’ll take to be 1L.
 
To calculate the molarity, the mass of pure compound is needed; however the solution’s specific gravity needs to be taken into account, and the volume; which we’ll take to be 1L.
  

Latest revision as of 13:35, 8 September 2007

Other Bits - Useful Molecular and Chemical Equations

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Useful Molecular and Chemical Equations

Formula Weight & Molecular Weight

Formula weight (FW) and molecular weight (MW) are calculated by summing the atomic weights (AW measured in atomic mass units, amu) of the individual atoms.

e.g. where:
C = 12.01amu
H = 1.00amu
Na = 35.45amu
Cl = 22.99amu


Chemical Name Chemical Formula Weight

Benzene C6H6 MW = 6*12.01 + 6*1.00 = 78.06amu
Sodium Chloride NaCl FW = 22.99 + 35.45 = 58.44amu


The difference between formula weight and molecular weight depends on the compound. It is correct to refer to a compound such as Benzene having a molecular weight or formula weight. It is incorrect to refer to sodium chloride having a molecular weight as NaCl exists as an ionic compound (Na+ Cl-) not as a molecular compound. In this case it is more precise to refer to sodium chloride’s formula weight.


Avogadro’s Number & mole

1 mole of atoms / molecules has a mass equal to the atomic / molecular weight in grams.

e.g. 1 mole (1mol) NaCl is the number of molecules in 58.44g of NaCl. (1mol NaCl = 58.44g)

Avogadro’s number is the number of atoms / molecules in 1 mole of any substance, which is equal to 6.02214x1023.


Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle n=\frac {m}{FW}}

Molarity – Molar Concentration

Molarity is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

e.g. 6 molar (6M) HCl is equal to 6 moles (6mol) of HCl per litre (L). (6M HCl = 6mol/L)

Where:
n = Number of moles
m = Mass in grams (g)
FW = Formula weight
M = Molarity in mol/litre (mol/L)
V = Volume in litres (L)
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle M=\frac {n}{V}}


Based on the previous two equations:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle m=MVFW} Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle M=\frac {m}{VFW}}

Primer Calculations

Primers are dissolved in sterile distilled water (sdH2O) to a concentration of 500pmol. Use one of the following to determine what volume of sdH2O to use:


Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac {\mu g*10^{6}}{500*MW}=\mu L} Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac {nmol}{0.5}=\mu L} Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac {pmol}{500}=\mu L}

Weight / mole Percentage

The percentage weight of an element in a compound is calculated using the atomic weight and formula weight.


Chemical Name Chemical Formula Weight

Hydrochloric acid HCl FW = 1.00 + 35.45 = 36.45amu


Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac {AW}{FW}*100=%weight}

Percentage weight of Cl in HCl:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle Cl=\frac {35.45}{36.45}=97.26%}


Similarly, mole percentage is a ratio.

Where:
x = Number of atoms of the element
T = Total number of atoms in the compound


Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac {x}{T}*100=%mole}

Percentage mole of Cl in HCl:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle Cl=\frac {1}{2}*100=50%}


Density and Specific Gravity

Density is the mass of a substance per volume.

Where:
D = Density (g/cc)
m = Mass in grams (g)
v = Volume in cubic centimetres (cc)
SG = Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is a unitless ratio, so for all purposes; SG ≡ D. Cubic centimetres are equivalent to millilitres; cc ≡ mL.


Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle D=\frac {m}{v}} Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle SG=\frac {D_1}{D_2}}

D2 = Density of H2O @ 4°C = 1.00g/cc


Molarity, Specific Gravity and Percentage Composition

Calculating Molarity from specific gravity and percentage composition:


Chemical Name Formula weight Percentage Composition Specific Gravity

Hydrochloric acid 36.45amu 37% 1.18


Percentage composition means xg of pure compound per 100g of solution, i.e. 37g/100ml = 37%. To calculate the molarity, the mass of pure compound is needed; however the solution’s specific gravity needs to be taken into account, and the volume; which we’ll take to be 1L.

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle m=SG*v*%composition} Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle M=\frac {m}{VFW}}

Where 1L = 1000cc For HCl:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle m=\frac {1.18*1000*37}{100}=436.6g}

Therefore:

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle M=\frac {436.6}{1*36.45}=11.97mol/L}