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Nanoparticle Characterizatione


Show A280 peaks, determine rate of DNA encapsulation vs free DNA.

Ca:P ratio

Use inductively coupled mass spectroscopy to determine Ca:P ratio.


Determine size and zeta potential of particles.

Gas Pycnometry

Determine density of nanoparticles


Take direct measurements of ~100 particles. Determine consistency of size.


Perform titration of nanoparticles until dissolution of nanoparticles. Run gel for DNA origami vs. free DNA after dissolution. Is origami intact?


Store nanoparticles at 25°C and 4°C. Measure rate of precipitation over week. How long can we store the nanoparticles?

Serum Assay

Apply DNA encapsulated particles vs free DNA origami vs PEGylated particles to bovine serum. Measure intact origami after period of time via agarose gel electrophoresis.

Apply endonucleases/DNase to encapuslated vs free DNA origami. Measure intact orgimai after periods of time via agarose gel elctrophoresis.


Perform MTT assay to measure metabolic activity of culture.

Cellular Uptake

Use carbazole-based biscyanine fluorophores to measure intact DNA origami intracellularly. Also used flourescent tagged DNA origami. Also use flourescent tagged Calcium Phospahte nanoparticles. potential for confocal microscopy.

Use chloroquinine to inhibit lysosomal fusion/acidification. Measure effect. May also use Cytochalasin D to inhibit endosome travel. Measure effect

Measure transfection of confluent cells vs recently split fast-growing cultures.

If using gWiz GFP encoding, use fluorescent microplate reader to measure transfection.

Use Von Kossa reaction to measure particle uptake into cells.

Von Kossa reaction. Dark cells indicate particle uptake