IGEM:MIT/2007/Heavy Metals

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Reviews

  • A Good Overview (though slightly back-dated): Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soil by trace metals [1]
  • A summary of Pollutants from the EPA [2]

Cadmium

  • MCL: 5 ppb
  • MCLG: 5 ppb
  • Known Carcinogen
  • Cadmium Contamination Sites
  1. Ishihara T, Kobayashi E, Okubo Y, Suwazono Y, Kido T, Nishijyo M, Nakagawa H, and Nogawa K. Association between cadmium concentration in rice and mortality in the Jinzu River basin, Japan. Toxicology. 2001 May 28;163(1):23-8. PubMed ID:11376862 | HubMed [Ishihara01]
Plachimada, India: [3]
    • statistics on Pb, Cd, Cr levels in well water surrounding a Coca-Cola plant (2006)
    • pictures too :)
  • Most recent(June06) paper on e.coli bioaccumulation of Cd
  1. Deng X, Yi XE, and Liu G. Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by gene-modified Escherichia coli JM109. J Hazard Mater. 2007 Jan 10;139(2):340-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.043 | PubMed ID:16890348 | HubMed [Deng06]


  • Heavy Metal Limits
  1. Staessen JA, Lauwerys RR, Ide G, Roels HA, Vyncke G, and Amery A. Renal function and historical environmental cadmium pollution from zinc smelters. Lancet. 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1523-7. PubMed ID:7911869 | HubMed [Staessen94]
  2. Satarug S, Baker JR, Urbenjapol S, Haswell-Elkins M, Reilly PE, Williams DJ, and Moore MR. A global perspective on cadmium pollution and toxicity in non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Jan 31;137(1-2):65-83. PubMed ID:12505433 | HubMed [Satarug03]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed
  • Promoters

</biblio>

  1. Brocklehurst03 pmid=12901859

</biblio>

Mercury

  • MCL: 2 ppb
  • MCLG: 2 ppb
  • 20 ppb makes the fish mercury buildup significant
  • Polluted sites
    • Onondaga lake [4] [5] [6]
    • Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge [7]
  • Detection (to assess our system):

Current Industry Filtration Techniques

Mercury: approved by EPA - Coagulation/Filtration; Granular Activated Carbon; Lime softening; Reverse osmosis.