CH391L/S13/Synthetic Meats and Organs
Introduction to Synthetic Meats and Organs
"Fifty years hence, we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing, by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium." - Winston Churchill
Since the advent of tissue engineering, the desire to create lab-grown replacement organs accrued in order to fulfill the needs of transplant patients. When organs deteriorated due to disease or powerful drug treatment, this need arise but not always satisfied. In fact, over 100,000 patients are said to be on the recipient waiting list every year. Moreover, over 6,000 people die from the lack of a donor organ. Simply, there are enough donor organs to be given around and, for the remaining organs available, compatibility is a major issue. Therefore, in vitro organs would be proper solution because these organs can be grown tailored to each and every patient. In Vitro organs are organs cultured outside the body. In vitro organs are also known as synthetic organs. The main objective of research in synthetic organs is to maintain and direct the overall development of the organ's architecture.
Incidentally, the offshoot topic of in vitro meats received popular attention concomitantly with in vitro organs. In vitro meats currently has not prevalence in today's economy because simply there is no demand for synthetic meats. Most people who indulge in nonvegetarian food are complacent of the environmental impact and even the preparation of their meat. While, vegetarians and vegans do not support such an option due to its unavailability. Without a demand, in vitro meats research cannot find the capital to industrialize and mass produce synthetic meats. As of now (2013), an in vitro meat hamburger is estimated to cost $330,000. The only hope for this possible industry is to take advantage of the skyrocketing prices of meats, namely beef. Although the potentials of in vitro meats can solve many societal issues, in vitro meats research needs to address certain pitfalls. In vitro meats are cultured muscle tissue with the purpose of replacing dietary meat. In Vitro meats are known as synthetic meats, test tube meat, tube steak, cultured meat, hydroponic meat, vat-grown meat, victimless meat and shmeat.
Arguably, research conducted by the National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) into in vitro meats paved a way to encourage the scientific community to further the progress. In 1995, the Food and Drug Admisnistration (FDA) approved the techniques to produce such in vitro meats. In 2001, NASA cultured in vitro meats from turkey cells. But, the first edible form of in vitro meat was grown from goldfish by the Tuoro Applied Bioscience Research Consortium in 2000. Apparently, the in vitro meat was grown to resemble fish fillets. In 2001, Willem van Eelen M.D., Wiete Westerhof Ph.D., and Willem van Kooten filed for a world wide patent on a process to produce in vitro meat which required a matrix collagen to be seeded with muscled cells. In 2004, Jon F. Vein also held a patent (U.S. Patent 6,835,390) for the production of in vitro meat for human consumption from muscle and fat cells. Research in synthetic meats was encouraged by People of Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) who offered a million dollar prize to the first company to offer in vitro meats to consumers. Without a demand for in vitro meats, in vitro meats would not make little headway; therefore, this prize that was announced in 2008 greatly fuels the race to industrialize this field. The deadline for the prize has been extended to some date in 2013.
The history of in vitro organs is not as colorful since much progress has yet to be made. In vitro organs research evolves as new techniques in tissue engineering have been uncovered. On June 9, 2011, the first synthetic organ was transplanted into a human subject with trachea cancer. A trachea composed from stem cells was placed into a 36 year old man at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm. This is a huge step forward in the in vitro organs research.
Meat and Organ Production
New Aged Butcher Shop
IGEM Take Home Message
- Benjaminson MA, Gilchriest JA, and Lorenz M. In vitro edible muscle protein production system (MPPS): stage 1, fish. Acta Astronaut. 2002 Dec;51(12):879-89.
- Ott HC, Matthiesen TS, Goh SK, Black LD, Kren SM, Netoff TI, and Taylor DA. Perfusion-decellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart. Nat Med. 2008 Feb;14(2):213-21. DOI:10.1038/nm1684 |
- Carrier RL, Papadaki M, Rupnick M, Schoen FJ, Bursac N, Langer R, Freed LE, and Vunjak-Novakovic G. Cardiac tissue engineering: cell seeding, cultivation parameters, and tissue construct characterization. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999 Sep 5;64(5):580-9.