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            <a href=""><h1 style="color:white;" ><b>Biomod<span>2013<br>&emsp; Team</span>Sendai</b></h1></a> 
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<h2>Project</h2> <Img Src=""><br>


For all living organisms, sensing weak signals in environment and amplifying them are critically important to survive. <br> Various types of signal sensing/ transduction systems have been highly developed in the course of evolution, e.g. immune and neuro-transmission systems.<br> These systems are not only astonishingly sensitive but very effective and efficient. If we could borrow principles from the living systems, we could create a system with novel functionalities.<br> In our project, we decided to create a sensing and signal transduction systems made of designed artificial biomolecules and chemicals.<br><br>


In order to realize a signal transduction system, we need to develop two types of system; a sensing system that detects external signal and a transmitting system that amplifies the signal and releases large amount of output molecules (payloard).<br> We adopt liposomes as a container of the system. <br><br>

<h3>Project: Lipo-HANABI</h3> In our system, stored molecules in liposome are released in chain-reaction triggered by environmental stimuli.<br> The system adopts a two-stage mechanism as follows.<br><br>

<h4>1st stage: Sensing system</h4>

<Img Src="" width="45%" height="45%" style="padding-left:10mm" align="right">

The 1st stage detects a certain signal in the environment, and release molecules to activate the 2nd stage. <br>In this project, we chose temperature change as an environmental signal that initiates the whole process.<br> Namely, we use a temperature-sensitive liposome for the 1st stage.<br> At a certain triggering temperature, they break and release key molecules for the 2nd stage. <br>The released key molecules attach on the 2nd stage liposomes and induce puncture of them.

<h4>2nd stage: Amplification system</h4>

<Img Src="" width="45%" height="45%" style="padding-left:10mm" align="right">

The 2nd stage liposomes contain both the payload molecules (e.g. drug) and the same key molecules released by 1st stage. <br>Once some of them break, it releases more key molecules, and they break other liposomes in their neighborhood. <br>As a consequence, bursting of the liposomes propagates exponentially in a chain-reactive way and releases a lot of payload molecules The advantage of adopting the two-stage strategy is that various types of signal in the environment can be detected by 1st stage design, without changing the 2nd stage.<br>

The mechanism of this system is similar to that of HANABI (fireworks in Japanese), therefore, we termed the project "Lipo-HANABI".<br>



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