Difference between revisions of "Biomod/2013/Sendai/project"

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         <article>
 
         <article>
 
<h2>Project</h2>
 
<h2>Project</h2>
<h3>Background and Motivation</h3>
+
<h3>Background</h3>
Living things have many different systems of signal transduction. We are interested in mechanisms for the systems. If we could create a similar system to them, it would be amazing. Particularly, we paid attention to a system of amplifying signals. This system seems to be relatively simple and we can apply it to a variety of fields. Therefore, we tried to create the system that could amplify even weak signals by molecular design.  
+
<!--
<h3>Project Goal </h3>
+
To adapt the harsh environment, living things have evolved many distinct systems for transmitting and amplifying signals. What is crucially important for the maintenance of life is such mechanism of signal transduction and amplification. We also have that kind of systems, such as sensing, immune and neurotransmission systems.
Our project is like the following. First of all, there are a lot of containers as small as weak signals. Every container contains keys. One of the containers, an initiator, detects a weak signal and opens. The keys released from the initiator open neighborhood containers. A reaction triggers other reactions over and over. This chain-reaction can amplify weak signals. In addition, if we put payloads into each container with keys, we can also carry something like medicines. By using a stimulus, we can control when to release payloads.
+
 
 +
What is crucially important in the maintenance of life is to sense weak signals and to amplify them. This system has been highly developed in signal transduction of living things. For instance, The information by signal transduction has allowed living things to adopt the harsh environment. If it is possible to imitate the biological signal transduction system, we 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
微弱な信号を感知しそれらを増幅することは、生命の維持においてきわめて重要である。生命においては進化の過程で高度に発展したセンサーとシグナル伝達がこの役割を担っている。例えば、我々の感覚、免疫、神経伝達システムは微小な信号から様々な重要な情報に変換している。また、環境の変化をセンシングし素早く応答することで生物は厳しい環境に適応することができる。このようなシステムをよりサイズが小さく拡張性が高い化学分子で模倣することができれば、環境を判断し的確な発信をするナノセンシングシステムが構築可能である。
 +
 
 +
シグナル伝達系を化学物質で構築するには、環境に応答するシステムとそれを伝達しながら増幅するシステムが必要である。リポソームはこれまで環境応答性やDDSのように内部からの放出を可能とするシステムとして活躍してきた。(DNAはナノテク技術とともに発達し、)その選択特異性の高さとフレキシビリティーから特異的作用や伝達にメリットがある。もしこのDNAとリポソームを組み合わせることが可能であれば、環境をリポソームがセンシングし、DNAがその情報を別のリポソームに伝達することで微小なシグナルが増幅されるシステムとなりうる。そこで、私たちはDNAとリポソームによる分子放出系の構築を目的とした。
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Sensing and amplifying weak signals are critical systems for life to adapt the harsh environment. These sensing and signal transduction systems have been highly developed to play the role during evolution. We can raise immune and neurotransmission systems as examples. Although these systems work very effectively, application usages of those are limited because they only work in living cells. Making sensing and signal transduction systems by using purified biomolecules and/or chemicals will overcome the situation.
 +
 
 +
Signal transduction with defined biomolecules and chemicals needs sensing systems to external signals and an amplification system that transmits signals. Liposomes have been used to highly respond the environment and to release molecules out from the inside. DNA is beneficial for specific-action and transmission, because of its high selective-specific and flexibility. If DNA and liposomes can be used together for such systems, we will realize the devices where some liposomes sense the environment, whereas DNA transmits the information to other liposomes, in order to amplify weak signals. Then, we aim at creating molecular-releasing systems using DNA and liposomes.
 +
-->
 +
Sensing and amplifying weak signals are critical for life things to adapt to the severe environment. These sensing and signal transduction systems have been highly developed to play the role in the course of evolution. For example, we can raise immune and neurotransmission systems. These systems work very effectively, however application usages of those are limited because they only work in living cells. Sensing and signal transduction systems made of purified biomolecules and/or chemicals will overcome the situation.<br
 +
 
 +
<h3> Motivation</h3>
 +
 
 +
Signal transduction with defined biomolecules and chemicals needs two system; sensing systems to external signals and transmit systems to amplify the signals. Liposomes have high responsibility to environment and have been used to release molecules out from the inside. DNA is beneficial for specific-action and transmission, because of its high selective-specificity and flexibility. If above system is made of DNA and liposomes, we can realize the nano-scaled flexible amplifier. Thus, we aim at creating molecular-releasing systems using DNA and liposomes.<br
 +
 
 +
<!--
 +
Is it possible to create similar one to the biological signal transduction system? If it is possible, we can design more effective molecular amplification. We can expect new applications. For instance, the molecular amplification can be used in a smart drug delivery system. Such mechanism may also allow us to artificially develop our nerve system.
 +
-->
 +
 
 +
<h3>Project: Lipo-HANABI</h3>
 +
As our summer project, we decided to construt a signal amplification system by using Liposomes and DNA nanotechnology.
 +
 
 +
The system has two stages: "Initiation by senseing environment" and "Amplification of signals by chain-reactive burst of liposomes".
 +
 
 +
<!--
 +
 
 +
Our project goal is to design molecular-releasing systems that amplify and transmit small signals. Here, Lipo means liposome, in which we store the payload molecules, and Hanabi is fireworks in Japanese.
 +
<br>
 +
<br><br>
 +
-->
 +
 
 +
<h4>First stage : Initiation by senseing environment</h4>
 +
The first stage senses environmental changes, and release secondary signals into the amplifier in the sexcond stage. In this project, we chose temperature as an environmental initiator because of controllability. Increasing temperature induces disruption of initial liposomes. Key DNA inside the liposomes is released and transmit signals into the second-stage amplifier<br>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<h4>Second stage: Amplification by chain-reactive burst of liposomes</br>
 +
The second stage recieve the signals from the first stage, and then amplify them by a chain reactive liposome destruction. The liposomes in the second stage encapsulate key DNAs and payload moleclules (like drugs). Once a liposome is disrupted, neighbor liposomes are also disrputed by the key DNA. This happens continuously, and then, the number of disrupted liposomes increases exponentially. Since the second-stage liposome also encapsulate payload molecules as a response to signals, the response initiated by the first signals is amplified in this stage.<br><br>
 +
 
 +
The advantage of the two-stage strategy is that we can make various types of signal amplification system without changing the 2nd stage. <br><br>
 +
 
 +
This system works like a HANABI (Japanese fireworks), because HANABI is resulted from chain-reactive bursts initiated by fire (first signal). Thus, we termed the project as "Lipo-HANABI" (we should note Lipo means liposomes).<br>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 
         </article>
 
         </article>
 
        
 
        

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<h2>Project</h2> <h3>Background</h3> <!-- To adapt the harsh environment, living things have evolved many distinct systems for transmitting and amplifying signals. What is crucially important for the maintenance of life is such mechanism of signal transduction and amplification. We also have that kind of systems, such as sensing, immune and neurotransmission systems.

What is crucially important in the maintenance of life is to sense weak signals and to amplify them. This system has been highly developed in signal transduction of living things. For instance, The information by signal transduction has allowed living things to adopt the harsh environment. If it is possible to imitate the biological signal transduction system, we  


微弱な信号を感知しそれらを増幅することは、生命の維持においてきわめて重要である。生命においては進化の過程で高度に発展したセンサーとシグナル伝達がこの役割を担っている。例えば、我々の感覚、免疫、神経伝達システムは微小な信号から様々な重要な情報に変換している。また、環境の変化をセンシングし素早く応答することで生物は厳しい環境に適応することができる。このようなシステムをよりサイズが小さく拡張性が高い化学分子で模倣することができれば、環境を判断し的確な発信をするナノセンシングシステムが構築可能である。

シグナル伝達系を化学物質で構築するには、環境に応答するシステムとそれを伝達しながら増幅するシステムが必要である。リポソームはこれまで環境応答性やDDSのように内部からの放出を可能とするシステムとして活躍してきた。(DNAはナノテク技術とともに発達し、)その選択特異性の高さとフレキシビリティーから特異的作用や伝達にメリットがある。もしこのDNAとリポソームを組み合わせることが可能であれば、環境をリポソームがセンシングし、DNAがその情報を別のリポソームに伝達することで微小なシグナルが増幅されるシステムとなりうる。そこで、私たちはDNAとリポソームによる分子放出系の構築を目的とした。


Sensing and amplifying weak signals are critical systems for life to adapt the harsh environment. These sensing and signal transduction systems have been highly developed to play the role during evolution. We can raise immune and neurotransmission systems as examples. Although these systems work very effectively, application usages of those are limited because they only work in living cells. Making sensing and signal transduction systems by using purified biomolecules and/or chemicals will overcome the situation.

Signal transduction with defined biomolecules and chemicals needs sensing systems to external signals and an amplification system that transmits signals. Liposomes have been used to highly respond the environment and to release molecules out from the inside. DNA is beneficial for specific-action and transmission, because of its high selective-specific and flexibility. If DNA and liposomes can be used together for such systems, we will realize the devices where some liposomes sense the environment, whereas DNA transmits the information to other liposomes, in order to amplify weak signals. Then, we aim at creating molecular-releasing systems using DNA and liposomes. --> Sensing and amplifying weak signals are critical for life things to adapt to the severe environment. These sensing and signal transduction systems have been highly developed to play the role in the course of evolution. For example, we can raise immune and neurotransmission systems. These systems work very effectively, however application usages of those are limited because they only work in living cells. Sensing and signal transduction systems made of purified biomolecules and/or chemicals will overcome the situation.<br

<h3> Motivation</h3>

Signal transduction with defined biomolecules and chemicals needs two system; sensing systems to external signals and transmit systems to amplify the signals. Liposomes have high responsibility to environment and have been used to release molecules out from the inside. DNA is beneficial for specific-action and transmission, because of its high selective-specificity and flexibility. If above system is made of DNA and liposomes, we can realize the nano-scaled flexible amplifier. Thus, we aim at creating molecular-releasing systems using DNA and liposomes.<br

<!-- Is it possible to create similar one to the biological signal transduction system? If it is possible, we can design more effective molecular amplification. We can expect new applications. For instance, the molecular amplification can be used in a smart drug delivery system. Such mechanism may also allow us to artificially develop our nerve system. -->

<h3>Project: Lipo-HANABI</h3> As our summer project, we decided to construt a signal amplification system by using Liposomes and DNA nanotechnology.

The system has two stages: "Initiation by senseing environment" and "Amplification of signals by chain-reactive burst of liposomes".

<!--

Our project goal is to design molecular-releasing systems that amplify and transmit small signals. Here, Lipo means liposome, in which we store the payload molecules, and Hanabi is fireworks in Japanese. <br> <br><br> -->

<h4>First stage : Initiation by senseing environment</h4> The first stage senses environmental changes, and release secondary signals into the amplifier in the sexcond stage. In this project, we chose temperature as an environmental initiator because of controllability. Increasing temperature induces disruption of initial liposomes. Key DNA inside the liposomes is released and transmit signals into the second-stage amplifier<br>


<h4>Second stage: Amplification by chain-reactive burst of liposomes</br> The second stage recieve the signals from the first stage, and then amplify them by a chain reactive liposome destruction. The liposomes in the second stage encapsulate key DNAs and payload moleclules (like drugs). Once a liposome is disrupted, neighbor liposomes are also disrputed by the key DNA. This happens continuously, and then, the number of disrupted liposomes increases exponentially. Since the second-stage liposome also encapsulate payload molecules as a response to signals, the response initiated by the first signals is amplified in this stage.<br><br>

The advantage of the two-stage strategy is that we can make various types of signal amplification system without changing the 2nd stage. <br><br>

This system works like a HANABI (Japanese fireworks), because HANABI is resulted from chain-reactive bursts initiated by fire (first signal). Thus, we termed the project as "Lipo-HANABI" (we should note Lipo means liposomes).<br>




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