Difference between revisions of "Beta-galactosidase"

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(links to protocols and X-Gal)
 
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*You can measure lacZ activity using flow cytometry.  See [http://www.cyto.purdue.edu/flowcyt/research/micrflow/jepras/jepras2.htm A flow cytometric study of stationary phase gene expression in E.coli using lacZ reporter gene fusion]
 
*You can measure lacZ activity using flow cytometry.  See [http://www.cyto.purdue.edu/flowcyt/research/micrflow/jepras/jepras2.htm A flow cytometric study of stationary phase gene expression in E.coli using lacZ reporter gene fusion]
 
**This paper uses [http://probes.invitrogen.com/media/pis/mp02904.pdf C<sub>12</sub>FDG] from Invitrogen.  However, FDG might be a better substrate in gram-negative bacteria like ''Escherichia coli'' <cite>Plovins-ApplEnvironMicrobio-1994</cite>
 
**This paper uses [http://probes.invitrogen.com/media/pis/mp02904.pdf C<sub>12</sub>FDG] from Invitrogen.  However, FDG might be a better substrate in gram-negative bacteria like ''Escherichia coli'' <cite>Plovins-ApplEnvironMicrobio-1994</cite>
*Alpha-complementation of &beta;-galactosidase does not seem to yield activities equal to wildtype &beta;-galactosidase. Depending on the fragment, the activity can be up to 24% of wildtype <cite>Zamenhof-JBacteriol-1972</cite>.  (If anyone has a better reference comparing results from a Miller assay of alpha-complementated &beta;-galactosidase with wildtype, please include it here.)
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* Another fluorogenic substrate is 4-methylumbelliferyl &beta;-D-galactopyranoside (MUG) which works in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells (without requiring permeabilization/lysis). <cite>Vidal-Aroca-2006</cite>
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*Alpha-complementation of &beta;-galactosidase does not seem to yield activities equal to wildtype &beta;-galactosidase. Depending on the fragment, the activity can be up to 24% of wildtype <cite>Zamenhof-JBacteriol-1972</cite>.  '''(If anyone has a better reference comparing results from a Miller assay of alpha-complementated &beta;-galactosidase with wildtype, please include it here.)'''
  
 
==Protocols==
 
==Protocols==
#[[Beta-Galactosidase Assay (A better Miller)]]
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* [[beta-galactosidase assay]]
#[[BE.109:Protein engineering/Assessing beta-galactosidase]]
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* [[LacZ staining of cells]]
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==See also==
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* [[X-Gal]]
  
 
==Reference==
 
==Reference==
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// original &beta;-galactosidase assay by Miller
 
// original &beta;-galactosidase assay by Miller
 
#Zamenhof-JBacteriol-1972 pmid=4552986
 
#Zamenhof-JBacteriol-1972 pmid=4552986
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#Thibodeau-Biotechniques-2004 pmid=15038156
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#WorthingtonBiochem http://www.worthington-biochem.com/BG/default.html
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#Serebriiskii-AnalBiochem-2000 pmid=10998258
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#Vidal-Aroca-2006 pmid=16629389
 
</biblio>
 
</biblio>
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[[Category:Material]] [[Category:Enzyme]] [[Category:Reporter]]
 
[[Category:Material]] [[Category:Enzyme]] [[Category:Reporter]]

Latest revision as of 08:28, 10 June 2008

Some interesting facts [1]

  • A tetramer of 4 identical subunits
  • Each subunit is 120kD.
  • Active only as a tetramer.
  • Mutations in some of the codons of the N-terminal 60aa or C-terminal 100aa results in an inactive, dimeric β-galactosidase. [2]
  • If the above sequences are deleted, the missing protein fragment can be replaced by the corresponding peptide. This is called intracistronic alpha or omega complementation respectively.
  • Its N-terminal 23 residues can be replaced by any amino acid residues without affecting the enzymatic activity.
  • A mutant with an internal deletion of codons 21-41 of the lacZ gene does not produce any active β-galactosidase.
  • A mutant with a deletion of everything past residue 60 (i.e. it expresses only the first 60 N-terminal amino acids) does not produce any active β-galactosidase.
  • You can measure lacZ activity using flow cytometry. See A flow cytometric study of stationary phase gene expression in E.coli using lacZ reporter gene fusion
    • This paper uses C12FDG from Invitrogen. However, FDG might be a better substrate in gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli [3]
  • Another fluorogenic substrate is 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-galactopyranoside (MUG) which works in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells (without requiring permeabilization/lysis). [4]
  • Alpha-complementation of β-galactosidase does not seem to yield activities equal to wildtype β-galactosidase. Depending on the fragment, the activity can be up to 24% of wildtype [5]. (If anyone has a better reference comparing results from a Miller assay of alpha-complementated β-galactosidase with wildtype, please include it here.)

Protocols

See also

Reference

  1. ISBN:3-11-014830-7 [Muller-Hill-1996]
  2. ISBN:0317118099 [Beckwith-1970]
  3. Plovins A, Alvarez AM, Ibañez M, Molina M, and Nombela C. Use of fluorescein-di-beta-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) and C12-FDG as substrates for beta-galactosidase detection by flow cytometry in animal, bacterial, and yeast cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Dec;60(12):4638-41. PubMed ID:7811104 | HubMed [Plovins-ApplEnvironMicrobio-1994]
  4. Vidal-Aroca F, Giannattasio M, Brunelli E, Vezzoli A, Plevani P, Muzi-Falconi M, and Bertoni G. One-step high-throughput assay for quantitative detection of beta-galactosidase activity in intact gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Biotechniques. 2006 Apr;40(4):433-4, 436, 438 passim. PubMed ID:16629389 | HubMed [Vidal-Aroca-2006]
  5. Zamenhof PJ and Villarejo M. Construction and properties of Escherichia coli strains exhibiting -complementation of -galactosidase fragments in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1972 Apr;110(1):171-8. PubMed ID:4552986 | HubMed [Zamenhof-JBacteriol-1972]
  6. Ullmann A. Complementation in beta-galactosidase: from protein structure to genetic engineering. Bioessays. 1992 Mar;14(3):201-5. DOI:10.1002/bies.950140311 | PubMed ID:1345751 | HubMed [Ullmann-Bioessays-1992]
  7. [by] Jeffrey H. Miller. Experiments in molecular genetics. [Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1972. ISBN:0879691069 [Miller-1972]
    original β-galactosidase assay by Miller
  8. Thibodeau SA, Fang R, and Joung JK. High-throughput beta-galactosidase assay for bacterial cell-based reporter systems. Biotechniques. 2004 Mar;36(3):410-5. PubMed ID:15038156 | HubMed [Thibodeau-Biotechniques-2004]
  9. http://www.worthington-biochem.com/BG/default.html [WorthingtonBiochem]
  10. Serebriiskii IG and Golemis EA. Uses of lacZ to study gene function: evaluation of beta-galactosidase assays employed in the yeast two-hybrid system. Anal Biochem. 2000 Oct 1;285(1):1-15. DOI:10.1006/abio.2000.4672 | PubMed ID:10998258 | HubMed [Serebriiskii-AnalBiochem-2000]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed