BME103 s2013:T900 Group5

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Revision as of 20:04, 25 March 2013 by Alexander Oropel (talk | contribs) (Research and Development)
Owwnotebook icon.png BME 103 Spring 2013 Home
Lab Write-Up 1
Lab Write-Up 2
Lab Write-Up 3
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Name: student
Name: student
Name: student
Name: student
Name: student
Name: student


Initial Machine Testing

The Original Design
(Add image of the full OpenPCR machine here, from the Week 9 exercise. Write a paragraph description for visitors who have no idea what this is)

Experimenting With the Connections

When we unplugged (part 3) from (part 6), the machine ... (did what? fill in your answer)

When we unplugged the white wire that connects (part 6) to (part 2), the machine ... (did what? fill in your answer)

Test Run

(Write the date you first tested Open PCR and your experience(s) with the machine)


Thermal Cycler Program

DNA Sample Set-up

row 1 cell 1 row 1 cell 2 row 1 cell 3 row 1 cell 4
row 2 cell 1 row 2 cell 2 row 2 cell 3 row 2 cell 4

DNA Sample Set-up Procedure

  1. Step 1
  2. Step 2
  3. Step 3...

PCR Reaction Mix

  • What is in the PCR reaction mix?

DNA/ primer mix

  • What is in the DNA/ primer mix?

Research and Development

Specific Cancer Marker Detection - The Underlying Technology

Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR, is the occurrence in which a segment of DNA is replicated multiple times. For the reaction that we are trying to produce the solution we will be using will contain Template DNA, Primers, Taq Polymerase, Magnesium Chloride and dNTP's.

To begin the process of PCR the solution containing template DNA we take the template DNA and heat up the solution to 95°C for 30 seconds in order to break the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides. This exposes the bases to allow the primers, which are short sequences of DNA that have been artificially synthesized, to attach to the exposed bases on the template DNA. In this process there are forward primers and reverse primers that attach to the exposed template DNA. After the primers are added, the solution is cooled down to 57°C in order to initiate primer annealing, or binding, to their respective regions. To complete a full strand of DNA the solution must be raised up to 72°C. The raise in temperature activates the Taq polymerase. Taq Polymerase is a protein that allows for binding of dNTP which are individual bases floating around within the solution that act as the subunits that the polymerase use to build new strands. Within the solution the dNTP's bind to the exposed bases starting from the primers. To aid in this process, the added Magnesium Chloride acts as a cofactor to allow polymerase to work and aids with the binding process. Taq polymerase will seek out and react with double stranded parts of DNA and can bind after it attracts individual bases which attach to the primer through a covalent bond, thus creating a new strand of DNA. In a PCR reaction this entire process is repeated multiple times, preferably 30 in order to cancel out other genes and work just for genes that code for cancer.

The reason that the process only codes for the cancerous genes is that the primers were artificially synthesized in order to code for those genes. For the non-cancer gene there will be no binding of the primer since it does not match the same sequence of DNA as the cancer gene. As a result the non-cancerous gene will remain uncoded while the cancerous gene is continuously copied which allows for the development of an new strand by the Taq polymerase and the dNTP's within the solution.

(BONUS points: Use a program like Powerpoint, Word, Illustrator, Microsoft Paint, etc. to illustrate how primers bind to the cancer DNA template, and how Taq polymerases amplify the DNA. Screen-captures from the OpenPCR tutorial might be useful. Be sure to credit the source if you borrow images.)