Amino acids

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General

Amino acids are of the general form (R represents any group):

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==R;4==H} }[/math]

Properties of the amino acids

Aa properties.gif


The 20 common amino acids are (with 3 letter and 1 letter abbreviations):

Alanine (Ala, A)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==CH$_3$;4==H} }[/math]

Arginine (Arg, R) ("aRginine")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==N;1==(yl);2==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);2==NH$_2$;3D==$^+$NH$_2$}}}}};4==H} }[/math]

Asparagine (Asn, N) ("asparagiNe," "aspartic-NH2"

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);2==NH$_2$;3D==O}};4==H} }[/math]

Aspartate (Asp, D) ("asparDic acid")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);2==O$^-$;3D==O}};4==H} }[/math]

Cysteine (Cys, C)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==SH};4==H} }[/math]

Glutamate (Glu, E) ("glutEmic acid")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);2==O$^-$;3D==O}}};4==H} }[/math]

Glutamine (Gln, Q) ("Qutamine")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);2==NH$_2$;3D==O}}};4==H} }[/math]

Glycine (Gly, G)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==H;4==H} }[/math]

Histidine (His, H)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\fiveheteroh[ac]{1==CH;2==NH$^+$;3==C;4==HC;5==NH}{3==(yl)}};4==H} }[/math]

Isoleucine (Ile, I)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);4==CH$_3$;2==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==CH$_3$}};4==H} }[/math]

Leucine (Leu, L)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\dtrigonal{0==CH;1==(yl);2==CH$_3$;3==H$_3$C}};4==H} }[/math]

Lysine (Lys, K) ("K" next to "L")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==NH$_3^+$}}}};4==H} }[/math]

Methionine (Met, M)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\tetrahedral{0==S;1==(yl); 3==CH$_3$}}};4==H} }[/math]

Phenylalanine (Phe, F) ("Fenylalanine")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H;3==\bzdrv{1==(yl)}};4==H} }[/math]

Proline (Pro, P)

[math]\ce{ \utrigonal{0==C;2==O$^-$;3D==O; 1==\fiveheterov{4==$^+$H$_2$N}{3Sb==(yl);3Sa==H}} }[/math]

Serine (Ser, S)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H;3==OH};4==H} }[/math]

Threonine (Thr, T)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;3==CH$_3$;4==OH};4==H} }[/math]

Tryptophan (Trp, W) ("tWiptophan")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H; 3==\nonaheteroh[bjge]{1==N}{1==H;2Sb==H;3==(yl)}};4==H} }[/math]

Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) ("tYrosine")

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);2==H;4==H;3==\bzdrv{1==(yl);4==OH}};4==H} }[/math]

Valine (Val, V)

[math]\ce{ \tetrahedral{0==C;1==\utrigonal{0==C;1==(yl);3D==O;2==O$^-$};2==$^+$H$_3$N;3==\dtrigonal{0==CH;1==(yl);2==CH$_3$;3==H$_3$C};4==H} }[/math]


Ambiguity codes and Modification codes

Asx, B ("B" near "D")

Either Aspartic acid or Asparagine, uncertainty due to hydrolysis.


Xle, J ("J" between "I" and "L")

Either Isoleucine or Leucine, ambiguity from Mass spec data

Xaa, X

Unknown amino acid

Glx, Z ("Z" near "X")

Either Glutamic acid or Glutamine, uncertainty due to hydrolysis

Sec, U

Selenocysteine (Uniprot uses C and a feature rather than U)

Pyl, O ("pyrrOlysine")

Pyrrolysine (Uniprot uses K and a feature rather than O)