Zachary T. Goldstein Week 2

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Contents

Purpose

The purpose of our investigations in genetics was to use the scientific method to identify the alleles and genotypes of flowers using crosses, and eventually cross flowers until we produced a true-breeding purple flower. We also used Aipotu software to compare mutant flower DNA sequences and protein sequences to true breeding flowers.

Methods

Part I

  • The four original flowers were crossed with themselves and with each other and a list of all potential flower colors was created (green, red, white, yellow, black, orange, blue, purple)
  • Dominance was tested and genotypes were figured by crossing all the colored flowers with each other and observing the colors of the F1 and F2 generations
  • We found that green is completely dominant to white yellow and blue, blue is dominant to white, red is incomplete dominant with green (black), red incomplete dominant with blue (purple), red incomplete dominance with yellow (orange)
  • Each color flower was crossed with itself for multiple crosses in a row to see if they would become true breeding
  • 5 colors were identified as true breeding (G, R, W, Y, B)
  • 3 colors only resulted from mixing two true breeding flowers, purple was one of these colors (B, O, P)
  • It was concluded that no allele existed to code for these three colors; it was impossible to create a pure breeding purple flower without mutation
  • Red and blue mixed to create purple so we tried to mutate each color until we got a purple flower
  • The red flower produced a purple mutant much quicker than the blue flower
  • Once the purple mutant was created it was self crossed to produce more purple flowers
  • Purple flowers from the F2 generation were continuously self crossed until self crossing produced a generation of all purple flowers
  • True breeding purple flower was saved to the "greenhouse"

Part II

  • To make a mutant version of a starting allele we selected the original green flower (pure breeding) and pressed "add mutation"
  • A mutation of the green flower resulted in mostly green flowers and one white mutant
  • The mutant was saved to the greenhouse and then the protein sequence and DNA sequence of the mutant was compared to the original green flower
  • All tables and observations were added to this assignment

Specific Tasks/Results

Part I

Allele Color
G Green
R Red
W White
Y Yellow
B Blue
Genotype Phenotype
WB Blue
WG Green
WR Red
WY Yellow
WW White
BG Green
BR Purple
BY Green
BB Blue
GR Black
GY Green
GG Green
RY Orange
RR Red
YY Yellow
  1. Dominance
    • Some alleles exhibited complete dominance (G), some exhibited incomplete dominance (R, Y, B) and others demonstrated a completely recessive nature (W). Incomplete dominance resulted in new flower colors such as black, orange, and purple.
  2. Genotypes of four starting organisms:
    • Green1: GG
    • Green2: BY
    • Red: WR
    • White: WW
  3. A true breeding purple flower was constructed and added to greenhouse (.zip).
  4. We were able to create a true breeding purple flower from the starting set of organisms via mutation of the red flower gene, however no purple allele existed in the set of original alleles.

Part II

  1. A mutation of a green flower was observed to create white flower
  2. Protein Sequence
    • The protein sequence of the green flower was drasitalclly different from the white flower. It was much longer and had no matching proteins.
  3. DNA sequence
    • The DNA sequences of the two flowers were very similar. There was an additional base at position 40 and a guanine in place of a cytosine at position 86.

Zachary T. Goldstein (an artistic interpretation)

Media:Goldstein2222.zip

Conclusion

The purpose of this lab was to use Aipotu software to gain a better understanding of genetics and practice the scientific method. Throughout this lab my team and I tested a variety of hypotheses that aimed to identify the genotypes of the flowers. We had to record observations, such as what color was produced when two flowers were crossed together, and collaborated on our results. Our main finding from the lab was that no allele for a purple flower existed within the genotypes of the original four plants; the only way we could create a true breeding purple flower was if we induced a mutation. Using the scientific method we were able to identify the alleles and genotypes of all flower colors and we eventually created a true breeding purple flower.

Acknowledgements

Everything completed on this assignment is my own work and is not copied from any one else.

I received help with this assignment from my partners User:Jordan T. Detamore and User:Matthew R Allegretti Zachary T. Goldstein 17:50, 6 September 2016 (EDT)Zachary T. Goldstein

Table syntax was constructed with guidance from Wiki Help

I received help on this assignment in class, specifically with formatting media into a .zip file from User:Kam D. Dahlquist

Resources

Website: Aipotu

BIOL368/F16

All class assignments:


All individual assignments:


All shared journals:

User: Zachary T. Goldstein

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