User:Richard A. Acevedo/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU
Zebra fish 8
Purpose: To feed fish and see if fish have survived and died but also if some survived to feed them.
Methods: Using dissection microscope, the fish were checked on to see if they were alive or dead. Light was also used to see if they moved but also how their appearance looked.
Results: All the fish died, in the control which was water the water was clear and all the fish died. In the test with the drug, the fish died and the liuid qas a bronze brown color. The two dark colored plates are the drug filled plates and the two clear plates are the control plates.
Conclusion: All the fish died due to unknown reasons. Maybe adding, changing, and replacing the drug liquid to new drug liquid might have killed the fish but also having the lab closed early on days where it said it closed later might have caused it because about just two days of feeding were missed due to the early closing of the lab.
Zebra Fish Week 6 &7
Observation of the fish:
As the fish were feed for two weeks to help them live and grow up, many things occured. Many fish died, while some survived. Some died due to the drug used and others died because they didnt have enough to eat. Some fishes mearued from 30 micrometers to 60 micrometers. The pictures depict examples of dead and alive fish.
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Zebra Fish Experiments:
The first objective was to learn a little about Zebra fish. Our TA gave us a good introduction to what we were going to head into when conducting the experiment. After that we were given orders to pick a good amount of live Zebra fish eggs to put in a petri dish to use for our experiment. Once the eggs were obtained, you then got to egg holder plates. Each plate contained 40 holding cups and about 20 eggs were put in one plate, so one egg in each cup holder. Out of the two plates, 40-cup holders were filled, one plate just contained 2-3 ml of deer park water and the other plate contained our drug we were using which was crushed acetaminophen. After finishing the set up of the experiment, lab partners would go to check up on the eggs to see if any died or hatched. Starting on the Wednesday after lab, the feeding process began. When feeding the Zebra fish, about 15 ul were given to each cup holders that contained a Zebra fish in the control plate and treatment plate.
Header: Exercise V - Invertebrates and Vertebrates Purpose:
To use the dichotomous key to identify invertebrates found in your transect from the Berlese Funnel, give examples of which germ tissues give rise to which organ types and systems. To describe differences in mechanisms of motility between flatworms, roundworms and annelids, define and give examples of acoelomates, pseudocoelomates and coelomates. To recognize whether an animal has radial, bilateral or no symmetry, be able to describe the differences in digestive system between flatworms, roundworms and annelids and being able to define deuterostome and protostome. (LabManual210)
Methods and materials:
In procedure one, using the dissecting scope, the acoelomate, planaria were observed. The dissecting scope was used not to just observe but to use to observe the digestion process of the planaria egg yolk. You then observed the movement used, how it shows the simplicity of the organism. The cross section of the whole mount of the planaria was examined using a microscope. The type of movement of the nematodes and cross section slide of their pseudocoelomate we observed, after that occurred you executed the last step, which was observing the coelomate Annelida to see the position of the internal organs, and the muscle layers. In procedure two, five examples of the five major classes were observed. These classes include arachnida, chilopoda, diplopoda, insect, and crustacea. Once the examples were observed, a process of classifying the examples correctly was done before moving to the group funnel samples. In procedure three, you carefully broke down your group funnel to get your organism into a petri dish. This was done by breaking down the funnel and pouring the 10-15 mL of 50% ethanol into a petri dish and the rest into a second dish. Using the dissecting scope, the organism were observed and to make sure they were seen perfectly, a pencil was used to poke around the debris if there was any sort. After observing the organisms, classifying the class of any invertebrate arthropods was done, this is where a key was used to order the class insect which could be found on a useful website. In procedure four, you had to consider the vertebrates that inhabited or passed through the transect. Having observed the organism, you might have to consider that the whole transect might be a single niche for the organism or it might just be part of their niche.
Data: These pictures represent the organisms we found. One picutre in in the petri dish and the other is the organisms in a pod. The las picture is used to classify and put the organism we identified in a table to see what different kinds we found. When finding these organisms we had to used a key to make sure what it was but to also classify it correctly during th lab.
From observing all the invertebrates and vertebrates, there is a wide population in the transect that my group picked. It incredible just from grabbing about 500 grams of objects from our transect or even less, you can find a whole lot of organisms that you wouldn’t expect to be there and if you did seeing the big amount is a wowing factor that if you grabbed even more, you could see the same or a lot more different organisms that can help with finding new invertebrates and vertebrates that have never been seen before.
Exercise IV - Plantae and Fungi
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to give examples of the unique characteristics that plants evolved throughout evolution, to explain how different definitive characteristics of fungi are compared to plants, give specific examples of angiosperms and bryophytes, list differences between angiosperms and bryophytes, and identifying the function of the reproductive parts of a flower and their structure. “Due to plants and fungi being a critically important as decomposers and autotrophs, having their diversity is very important and astounding.”(Lab Manual: Biology 210)
Materials and methods: In this lab, six procedures were conducted that dealt with both plants and fungi which were the most important in exercise four. Two zip lock bags were obtained, and you had to go to your transect. In the first bag, dead leaves had to be out inside of it with a little bit of crumbly soft soil. About 500g of leaf litter was placed into one bag. This would end up being used to set up the Berlese funnel for collecting invertebrates for next week’s lab. Next, the representative samples from five plants in a way that is minimally damaging were taken. We then chose a diversity of plants. For trees, a photo of an entire tree was taken; old branches and leaves were then taken to be able to identify the genus. Seeds, pinecones, and flowers from the plants within the transect were picked up and brought back to the lab. Mnuim, the moss, was then observed and then compared to the height of the lily plant stem. Once that was done, the cross section slide of the lily stem was examined and the xylem and phloem layers needed to be found. Upon examining the layers, the leaves of the moss were examined using a dissection scope or a low magnification compound scope. You then had to examine the moss, Polytrichum, and had to identify the male and female gametophytes and sporophyte. When observing a lily flower you had to dissect and identify the part. From picking your plants, the lab seeds and seeds from the transect had to be dissected, and the parts of the lab seeds as listed in the handout had to be identified. Once that occurred, we prepared for next weeks lab by Pouring 25 mL of the 50:50 ethanol/water solution into the 50 mL conical tube. We then fitted a piece of the screening material into the bottom of the funnel opening, and the taped the sides of the screen if necessary, so the leaf litter would not fall into the preservative with the ethanol and water. The leaf litter sample was carefully put in the top of the funnel. The funnel was then set up on a ring stand so that it is held into the tube with the ethanol. Parafilm covered the base of the funnel and the tube so the ethanol will not evaporate. We the proceeded at Placing a lighted 40-watt lamp above the funnel with the incandescent bulb about 1-2 inches from the top of the leaf litter. We then covered everything with foil and Left the Berlese Funnel on the lab bench until the next lab period.
Data and observations: Procedure 1: On the table which will posted below Procedure 2: On the table which will posted below
Procedure 3: Briefly describe the shape, size, and cluster arrangement of the leaves from the transect plants. If there are no leaves, examine the attachment sites or evidence of leaves in the area (leaf litter). • the leaves were a bout half a palm size or at least the size of a palm of a human hand. They were mostly a teardrop shape and when dealing with the cluster of the leaves, they were mostly stuck together and brown. While compared to the plants, they were mostly alive and separate but close to each other.
Procedure 4: On the table Procedure 5:
Conclusions and future directions: In conclusions, plants that you wouldn’t expect to have seeds do have seeds. Also when conducting this experiment having the exact amount of materials from your transect is very important especially when you need to use it in your experiment. This includes the quality, diversity, and quantity of your plants and object that you need rom you transect to be able to conduct your lab.
Procedure 1. · The smell of the transect was very earthy and its appearance looked very dark, looks like fungi or algae made a home but it was darker as you went from the top to bottom ·There were sings of mold or green shoots that developed in the top of the transect ·The two organisms we found were a fungi and an organism protist called Chlamydomonas. The fungi is not phtosynthesizing but the Chlamydomonas is. ·The fungi was non-motile while the toher was motile. ·The fungi measured about 10 to 15 μM and the Chlamydomonas was about 3 μM ·The chlamydomonasmeets all the needs by being motile, having a good amount of food but being in the carrying capacity of the populaion. This meaning it will have enough for living. ·If the infusion grew for another 2 months, i believe the amount of organisms would increase but that would cause selective pressures on the carrying capacity of the organisms because then they would have to compete to meet their life needs