User:Tunji Odunlami/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

From OpenWetWare

< User:Tunji Odunlami(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
Current revision (14:52, 16 July 2014) (view source)
 
(106 intermediate revisions not shown.)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
'''Lab 5: Invertebrates'''
 +
 +
'''Tunji Odunlami'''
 +
 +
'''Instructor: Alyssa Pederson'''
 +
 +
'''July 14, 2014'''
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Introduction'''
 +
 +
----
 +
The purpose of this lab was to understand the importance of invertebrates and learn how simple systems evolved into more complex systems. Although invertebrates may appear to be simple, many organisms have specialized structures and cells accompanying a complex overall body (Bentley, 2014). Similar to humans, some organism are bilaterally symmetrical and maintain the three germ layers of tissue, which are ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In this experiment, soil invertebrates found in a specific transect were studied. A variety of organisms can be found in soil or leaf matter. This includes invertebrates that prey on other organisms, or survive from using plant material (Bentley, 2014).  Since most soil invertebrates are arthropods, then the majority of the organisms found in the Berlese Funnel will be arthropods. The hypothesis of this experiment states that there will be arthropods found in transect 5.
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Materials and Method'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The first part of this lab required the observation of acoelmates, pseudocoelmates, and coelmates. Organisms such as the earthworm, nematoda and planaria were viewed under the microscope and characteristics of each cross section were noted. The next part of this lab was to analyze invertebrates collected in the Berlese flask. There structure, shape and phylum was then recorded.
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Results'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The results of this experiment accept the hypothesis. There was evidence of arthropods in the Berlese Funnel plant litter. All organisms found within the plant litter were arthropods. The four organisms identified in the plant litter were a fly, a flea, millipede, and a sucking lice. The organisms in the funnel all were bilaterally symmetrical, apart from the sucking lice which displayed radial symmetry.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Tables and Graphs'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
Table 1.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjOE51UEtqZVZEZ2c/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 1.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjTDhBcmp3R1dKYkphc19LTHlxdl9KUzRLdEU4/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 2.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjSXNwSGhPZlFlQV9pRWttUHh4bjBFTUNDY3Vv/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 3.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjaGRRUTRHRWJMNW5QZlhQdGZ4RWlJSHdSbDRB/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 4.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjWktVS01JUWg3RUxLSk4za3lQSmpBeDJuQXJv/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 5. Food web.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjbHc4X1k2R25IUmltM2JzR2ZacW81NFJOeWtr/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 6. Vertebrate classification
 +
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRXNneGNFUzRYSGdVWjFNRjV6dlE3VThzY3lF/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Discussion'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The purpose of this lab was to understand the importance of invertebrates and learn how simple systems evolved into more complex systems.  All organisms found in the Berlese funnel can be characterized as arthropods. This finding led to the accepting of the hypothesis. It is understandable that only arthropods were found in the plant litter. Most of the animals on earth fall into the arthropod category. This means there will be a wide variety of characteristics displayed for arthropods and this was shown in this experiment. Although most of the animals found were bilaterally symmetrical, there was also the sucking lice which had radial symmetry. All organisms also differed in size and shape, suggesting that they may have acquired separate niches. The fly and the flea had wings, but the millipede and sucking lice did not. Also, all of these microorganisms appear to be very small, as they are measured in micrometers. There are clearly similarities and differences in the arthropod phylum, and this was aptly displayed in todays lab.
 +
 +
The food web shown in figure 5. illustrates trophic relationships in an ecosystem. All ecosystems display energy transfer between trophic levels. As shown, in a community you may have primary producers at the bottom of the trophic level. Primary producers are things like plants that can make their own organic material. The organisms found in the plant litter from the experiment would be in the second trophic level. These animals eat the primary producers, and are referred to as primary consumers. The next level would be secondary consumers, such as a worm or bird. These animals consume primary decomposers and consumers and eat organisms such as arthropods. Each time you consume an organism in a trophic level, energy is transferred until that energy is transferred back to where it started, with primary producers.
 +
 +
 +
'''References'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.
 +
 +
2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Lab 4. Plantae and Fungi.'''
 +
 +
'''Tunji Odunlami'''
 +
 +
'''Instructor: Alyssa Pederson'''
 +
 +
'''July 9, 2014'''
 +
 +
'''Introduction'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The purpose of this lab was to understand the characteristics and diversity of plants, and appreciate the functions of fungi. Plants are significant because without them humans can not exist. Plants are multicellular organisms that produce oxygen and rid the air of excess carbon dioxide (Lehman, 2009). Plants have specialized structures such as the stomata, that function in gas exchange. The xylem of a leaf is the vascular tissue which transports water and minerals up to the leaves. The phloem allows sugars to flow to the roots of a plant(Lehman, 2009). Other flowering plants are called angiosperms, and they house their reproductive organs inside the flower. Fungi are also important organisms and have significant functions within the ecosystem. They are natural recyclers, and some maintain symbiosis with plants. This experiment examined both plants and fungi, and noted their structure as well as their function.
 +
 +
'''Materials and Method'''
 +
----
 +
 +
This experiment required obtaining a leaf litter sample from a transect. About 500 grams of plant litter was transferred to a small bag. Then, samples from five plants were taken and placed in another bag, along with seeds, and pine cones. The five plants were characterized based on their size, shape, and specialized structures. The next step of this experiment analyzed plant vascularization, cell specialization, and plant reproduction. Different fungi was also observed and structures such as hyphae and mycelium were noted. The last part of this experiment was to set up a Berlese funnel in order to collect invertebrates.
 +
 +
'''Results'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The results of this experiment showed that most of the plants in transect 5 were similar in shape, structure, and color. No seeds were brought back from transect five. Most of the plants were green in color and were similar in shape, but the size was different. Also, all the transect sample plants appeared to be vascular, although some differed in their specific pattern. The first four plants were dicot and shared diploid stages of the life cycle.
 +
 +
The fungi examined was the Rhizopus or bread mold. This fungi had small dark spots called sporangia and visible mycelium that looked like long extending branches.
 +
 +
'''Tables and Graphs'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
Table 1.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjUlFjTE5EWWgzRHM/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 1. Transect sample plant 1.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjTld0QzcwZGY0YkV4LUU0TGJuUjNpMzRiOGhJ/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 2. Transect sample plant 2.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjM0JFVU82X1puNmxRM21pNHVOUm5HM1BWR1dZ/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 3. Transect sample plant 3.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRjhsR0hTbHRsNU10akRpTWVybU13ZlQwRVlr/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 4. Transect sample plant 4.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjUkZwOVpHY09xUzR5SzBfZ01rYmE1UXFMWWtJ/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 5. Transect sample plant 5.
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjdkRxVExsUmNqMUVjMDRHMy12WVNCUS1ydklj/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 6. (Rhizopus Zigspores)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjb2RoX0VTWlNhTkxFVzBRamVzTXVaYUcyeGl3/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
Figure 7. (Fungi Rhizopus breadmold)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjR3VBQXRFUFdfcUV2MWtFNEQ5am01YXNYYlUw/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Discussion'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The experimental purpose of this lab was to have a better understanding of the diversity of plants and fungi. Upon observing Rhizopus zigspores under the microscope, it was clear that it was a fungus. The sporangia was clearly visible and appeared as small circular black structures. The mycelium was also present throughout the structure and looked like skinny branches. Bread mold was then examined and the same structures were visible but the mycelium was less visible and looked more condense. According to this description, the fungi examined belong to the Ascomycota division. This division is the largest and includes yeast, molds, and mildews.
 +
 +
Fungi are important because they are decomposers and provide mechanisms necessary for the survival of the ecosystem (Bentley, 2014). Fungi ultimately play a crucial role in the biosphere. They release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and nitrogenous material into soil
 +
(Bentley, 2014). These products are used by plants and plants provide oxygen necessary for survival.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''References'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.
 +
 +
2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
Lab 3. Microbiology and identifying Bacteria
 +
 +
Tunji Odunlami
 +
 +
Instructor: Alyssa Pederson
 +
 +
July 7, 2014
 +
 +
 +
'''Introduction'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
The purpose of this experiment was to understand the characteristics of bacteria and observe antibiotic resistance. Over the years, bacteria have grown resistant to antibiotics. Research shows that tetracycline resistant bacteria have been found in increasing numbers of species and as a result, reduced the effectiveness of tetracycline (Roberts, 1996). There are now specific tetracycline resistant genes in bacteria.
 +
This experiment analyzes this sensitivity, as well as the mechanism of action for the antibiotic tetracycline. Tetracycline works by breaking through the bacteria cell wall by passive diffusion and in the process inhibits bacteria growth by destroying the cell membrane (Schnappinger, 1996) . This experiment compares the growth rate of microorganisms in the presence of tetracycline and regular nutrient agar. The hypothesis of this experiment states that the average number of bacteria will be higher in agar plates with out tetracycline.
 +
 +
'''Materials and Method'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
This lab required the observing of microorganisms. In a prior experiment, serial dilutions were made and used in conjunction with nutrient agar plates. Tetracycline was added to half of the agar plates, and they amount of bacteria growth was later recorded. The characteristics of the bacteria was also examined to measure the effect of tetracycline. Two organisms from the nutrient agar plate and tetracycline plate were then viewed using oil immersion.
 +
 +
The next procedure required gram staining. A sterile loop was used to scrape bacteria on the surface of the agar plates. The slides used were heat fixed and then while working with a staining tray, the slides were covered with crystal violet for one minute. This stain was rinsed and then covered in Grams Iodine for one minute. The slide was then decolorized using alcohol and smeared with safranin stain for 30 seconds. The slide was allowed to dry and then it was observed using 40x and the oil objective
 +
 +
PCR sequencing was the next step. A single colony of bacteria was transferred to 100 microliters of water. This was incubated at 100 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes. The centrifuge boiled samples for an additional five minutes. During this period 20 microliters of primer was added and the, 5 microliters of supernatant was transferred to the 16s PCR reaction.
 +
 +
'''Results'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The results of this lab showed an increase in bacteria growth for the nutrient agar plates in comparison to the tetracycline. The maximum amount of colonies counted on the tetracycline plate was 7. The maximum number on the agar plate was over 100. The results shown in table 1 display the amount of colonies per ml.
 +
Table two shows that most of the bacteria was gram negative and spherical in shape. The colonies appear to be punctiform and few were motile.
 +
The bacteria also retained a faint odor.
 +
 +
'''Tables and Graphs'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
 +
Table 1 ( Serial Dilutions Results)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcW9uSUVDb1BXY1E/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Table 2 (Bacteria Count)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjQ3J6Z05nY1lxQnc/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 1: (Nutrient agar 10^-3)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjZjBPSjdPaUttOXJYdFNUbTc3Y2F1NHJGRUZv/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 2: (Nutrient agar 10^-9)
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRlBidnh0M2M3cVBveHJVOVd3azlBby1PYmdJ/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
Figure 3: (Tetracycline 10^-3)
 +
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjMERKN2plaEw3T205U3BNLXEtbjBZbjQ5LVlj/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
'''Discussion'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The results of this experiment accept the hypothesis that more bacteria colonies will grow when tetracycline is not present. The difference in the colony growth is represented in table 2. This table shows that on average, There were more colonies and faster growth on the nutrient agar plates. For example, when the dilution factors were the same at 10^-3, the nutrient agar resulted in 100 plus colonies while the tet. plate resulted in virtually no visible bacteria. These results suggest that although bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, tetracycline is still effective in neutralizing bacterial fungi.
 +
 +
Considering the niche of archaea, it is unlikely that they would ever be found on the agar plates. That is because archaea grow in extreme environments including hot springs, and the bottom of the ocean (Bentley, 2014. If the bacteria were cultivated for longer it is likely that the smell would become stronger and the appearance would change from week to week. This is because bacteria are known to spread and multiply quickly. As each week passes and more and more bacteria engulf the nutrient, a change in smell and appearance would be expected.
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''References'''
 +
 +
----
 +
1.Schnappinger, D. (1996, June 1). Antiobiotic Action. Environmental Sciences and Pollution, 165, 355-369.
 +
 +
2.Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.
 +
 +
3.Roberts M. Tetracycline resistance determinants: Mechanisms of action, regulation of expression, genetic mobility, and distribution. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1996;19:1-24.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Lab 2. Identifying Algae and Protists'''
 +
 +
'''Tunji Odunlami'''
 +
 +
'''Instructor: Alyssa Pederson'''
 +
 +
'''July 2, 2014'''
 +
 +
'''Introduction'''
 +
 +
----
 +
The purpose of this lab was to identify organisms using a dichotomous key, and understand the characteristics of algae and protists. A population is known as a group of organisms from the same species that occupy the same niche (lehman, 2009). The objective of this experiment expands on this idea, as it examines protists and algae from the same transect. Organisms such as plants are autotrophs, and synthesize organic compounds from light in a process called photosynthesis (Lehman, 2009). This mode of acquiring energy is different from that of heterotrophs that rely on engulfing their prey (Lehman, 2009). If energy can be obtained from light, then photosynthesizing organisms are more likely to use this method for obtaining organic materials.The experimental hypothesis for this lab states that photosynthetic organisms will only be found near the surface of the hay fusion culture.
 +
 +
'''Materials and Methods'''
 +
 +
----
 +
This experiment required the usage of a dichotomous key to identify unknown organisms. Four unknown organisms from two different niches were identified using the key. The microorganisms growing on both the surface of the liquid and at the bottom of the hay infusion culture represented the two different niches. The hay infusion culture was also observed for characteristics like color and visible plant matter. The next step involved preparing and plating serial dilutions. This was done by labeling four tubes with, 10^-2, 10^-4, 10^-6, and 10^-8 markers. 100 microliters from the culture was added to 10mls of broth in the tube. This step was repeated to make a 10^-8 dilutions. Further dilutions were done using four nutrient agar and four tetracycline plates. 100 microliters from each test tube was spread on the agar plates. This was repeated to make a 10^-9 dilution factor.
 +
 +
'''Results'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The hay infusion was observed and appeared to be opaque with a slight yellow and brown tint. There was plant matter and debris dispersed at the bottom of the culture. The culture was also odorless. The specimen found near the top of the culture was the Paramecium and Amoeba. The organisms at the bottom of the culture were believed to be Colpidium and Chlamydomnas.
 +
 +
'''Tables and Graphs'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
'''Figure 1'''
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjZkNURUNKWVJSRy1sWHM1ZFZ3RmRrNEQ4T09r/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
(Serial dilution diagram)
 +
 +
 +
'''Figure 2'''
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjNURfaHRFU1pSN0E/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
(Hay infusion culture)
 +
 +
 +
'''Figure 3'''
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjV0o5MGprTkdwemxUM3Rqa3lDT2hYLUNMdlRV/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
(paramecium)
 +
 +
 +
'''Figure 4'''
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcG9WSHZPR0d0ZlRWbGFSZENlWlF0NDE1VVpF/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
(colpidium)
 +
 +
 +
'''Figure 5
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/a/student.american.edu/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjNDQ1YmJXTzJWWjlzTmVOWi1pZ3J6RE8zZHUw/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
(Chlamydomonas)
 +
 +
'''Figure 6'''
 +
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjc0NvWFhzcFgxTHVWMEJhVWY3Q2VPbmhiS01N/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 +
 +
 +
(amoeba)
 +
 +
 +
'''Discussion'''
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
The experimental hypothesis for this lab states that photosynthesizing organisms will only be found near the surface of the hay fusion culture. The results of this experiment led to this hypothesis being rejected. The results found that unicellular eukaryotes inhabited the surface. These organisms were the paramecium and amoeba. Unlike the algae, protists do not photosynthesize (Bentley, 2014). Amoeba are also protists, and they engulf bacteria (Bentley, 2014). The bottom of the culture also exhibited more free living protozoa such as Colpidium. Chlamydomonas was also observed at the bottom of the culture.
 +
 +
Organisms away from the plant matter versus being close may use the resources in its environment differently based on the organisms niche. The type of food, and how it consumes energy are all factors that shape an organisms niche (Lehman, 2009). So in theory, photosynthetic species may be found near the surface or closer to light than organisms that directly ingest prey. This idea was not substantiated in this experiment. Paramecium and Amoeba were observed at the top or near the surface of the culture. The amoeba appeared colorless and with out any distinct shape. They also were motile and approximately 25 micrometers in size. The paramecium had an oral shape and appeared ciliated. It was long, colorless, and about 50 micrometers in size. Both Paramecium and the Amoeba are motile and non-photosynthesizing. The unicellular and motile algae Chlamydomonas was observed and found at the bottom of the surface. It was 50 micrometers in size and looked to have some organelles. Chlamydomonas have chloroplasts, although this was not clearly observed, and have the ability to photosynthesize. The last organism found at the bottom of the surface was the colpidium, which had a smaller body in comparison to the other organisms, and was much faster. This protist does not have the ability to photosynthesize.
 +
 +
The Chlamydomonas meets all the needs of life described as, responding to stimuli, being made up of cells, evolution, reproduction, and taking and using energy. The Chlamydomonas is a unicellular, and uses a flagella to interact with its environment. It also has a chloroplast and is capable of photosynthesis. Along with being isogamous, Chlamydomonas is thought to be the origin of multicellular evolution in the volvacine line (Bentley, 2014).
 +
 +
Some sources of error included the dichotomous key. Using this to identify unknown organisms presented problems. It is likely that we incorrectly identified a certain organism because it was difficult to gage specific features in the organisms. Also, determining the size in micrometers of each organism was a source of error. Many of the organisms were motile and so it was problematic when trying to accurately measure using the ocular meter. This lab can be improved upon in the future by perhaps allowing for a longer incubation period. If the hay infusion culture was observed for another two months, it is likely that more organisms would appear, most notably bacteria. Once the plant matter and food from the culture is used up, the protists could die since they are heterotrophs. This would put protists at a disadvantage, and one would expect more photosynthetic organisms to dominate the remains of the infusion culture since they can obtain nutrients through photosynthesis.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''References'''
 +
 +
1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.
 +
 +
2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
'''Lab 1. Biological Life at AU Campus'''
'''Lab 1. Biological Life at AU Campus'''
Line 11: Line 430:
----
----
-
The purpose of this experiment is to make observations that will allow for a better understanding of natural selection and how it drives evolution.  
+
The purpose of this experiment was to make observations that would allow for a better understanding of natural selection and how it drives evolution. There are millions of different species that live on earth, some of which are unidentified, and these groups of species can coexist while inhabiting the same area at the same time (Bentley, 2014). The transect analyzed in this experiment was an open area with exposure to the sun. The topography of transect 5 led to the hypothesis stating that there will be more photosynthetic specimen in transect 5 than the other locations.  
-
Materials and Methods: This experiment required the observation of green algae in the Volvocine line. The samples of green algae examined were the Chlamydomonas, Volvox, and Gonium. Characteristics such as the number of cells, mechanisms of motility, and colony size were determined and later recorded. This was followed by observing a niche at American Universities campus. A 20 by 20 meter transect was marked and general characteristics such as topography, location, and abiotic components were identified and recorded. This experiment entailed the making of a Hay Fusion Culture. This was done by weighing 10 to 12 grams of soil from the transect and placing it in a jar with 500ml of water. About .1 grams of dried milk was mixed into the jar for 10 seconds. The top of the jar was then removed and placed on the lab table.  
+
-
Observations and Data: Transect 5 appeared quiet with few visible abiotic components. Ants were seen covering several rocks along with a brown bird on a tree. The tree appeared to be approximately 20 to 25 feet in height. This tree stood directly in the middle of the transect and was visibly bigger that the other trees. The transect was filled with green moss and occasional patches of long green grass. Soil was also seen on the ground in the midst of rocks and many different shaped stones. The largest stone was seen directly east of the transect and stood out in comparison to the other stones because of its apparent mass.  
+
'''Materials and Methods'''
-
+
 
-
The observations and data should be: (1) Recorded honestly!!! Remember, sometimes unexpected findings are what lead us to the best scientific advances. Everything has some meaning, even if it doesn’t make sense at the time (2) Recorded as you go along in the notebook. Don’t trust your memory. You will forget the little details. You cn make notes and then transfer to a lab notebook or openwetware. (3) Recorded as completely as possible. You don’t need to interpret the data in this section, for you will do that in the next section (4) Recorded in an easy to read format. You can draw graphs or write tables in this section to illustrate your data in a more user-friendly way
+
----
 +
This experiment required the observation of green algae in the Volvocine line. The samples of green algae examined were the Chlamydomonas, Volvox, and Gonium. Characteristics such as the number of cells, mechanisms of motility, and colony size were determined and later recorded. This was followed by observing a niche at American Universities campus. A 20 by 20 meter transect was marked and general characteristics such as topography, location, and abiotic components were identified and recorded. This experiment entailed the making of a Hay Fusion Culture. This was done by weighing 10 to 12 grams of soil from the transect and placing it in a jar with 500ml of water. About .1 grams of dried milk was mixed into the jar for 10 seconds. The top of the jar was then removed and placed on a flat surface.
 +
 
 +
'''Results'''
 +
 
 +
----
 +
Transect 5 appeared to have both abiotic and biotic components. Ants were seen covering several rocks along with a brown bird on a tree. The tree appeared to be approximately 20 to 25 feet in height. This tree stood directly in the middle of the transect and was visibly bigger that the other trees. The transect was filled with green patches of moss and occasional spots of long green grass. Soil was also seen on the ground in the midst of rocks and many different shaped stones. The largest stone was seen directly east of the transect and stood out in comparison to the other stones because of its apparent mass.
 +
 
 +
'''Tables and Graphs'''
 +
 
 +
----
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Table 1.'''
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcFVEdU5NLXlYWlk/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 
 +
(Abiotic and Biotic components Table)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Figure 1'''
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjbTVtMW50YkZkczg/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 
 +
(Aerial view of Transect 5)
 +
 
 +
'''Figure 2'''
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjS1hiUnRUUVVOQ3M/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 
 +
( Different rocks and stones in Transect 5, also displaying patches of moss and grass)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Figure 3'''
 +
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjOHNhS05qMmVXRDA/edit?usp=sharing
 +
 
 +
(Tree centered directly in the middle of transect. A dry landscape relative to other areas of transect 5)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Discussion'''
 +
 
 +
----
 +
Populations of several different species are assembled in nature in what is known as a community (Lehman, 2009). This experiment exemplified this fact, as different species were observed cohabiting transect 5. Transect 5 appeared to be still developing as some areas were more cultivated than others. The ground and soil was warm to the touch, there were small plants, few trees, and different visible biotic organisms. Patches of moss were widespread along with intermittent weeds dispersed throughout the landscape. This experiment also observed samples of green algae from the volvacine line. The Chlamydomonas, Gonium, and Volvox samples displayed different characteristcs such as size and mechanisms of reproduction that may offer insight about the beginning of life and evolution.
 +
 
 +
In the future, the experimental design of this lab can be improved. One such improvement includes the dimensions of the transect. A bigger transect could be used in the future to observe a wider array of species in the environment. Also, only 10 to 12 grams of ground sample was used in this experiment. A larger sample could be used to analyze whether or not this affects the biodiversity of the ground sample. Lastly, more people could observe the transect instead of just two as with this experiment. There was only a limited amount of time to observe the transect and with more observers, we could better identify the abiotic and biotic aspects of the environment.
 +
 
 +
During this experiment we encountered some forms of error. One source of error was the sample itself. In theory, the 10  to 12 gram ground sample was representative of the ground and surface in our transect. This is highly unlikely due to the different landscape within transect 5. Some areas of the transect were muddy, while others appeared more dry. Some parts of the transect had lots of grass while others parts were barren. These factors definitely contributed to the type of ground vegetation sample we extracted. Another source of error involved the weighing of the .1gm dried milk. This amount was very small and difficult to transfer. Therefore, it is unlikely that exactly .1gms was successfully transferred into the Hay Infusion Culture.
 +
 
 +
The hypothesis of this experiment suggests that the most photosynthetic specimen would be found in transect 5. This conclusion was based on the landscape and design of the transect. Data has not been fully collected in this two part experiment, and we will look to future labs to conclude whether or not to accept this hypothesis.
 +
 
 +
----
 +
'''References'''
-
Conclusions Your conclusions should be based on your data. Therefore, they may not agree with your purpose or hypothesis, and this is O.K. Explain whether your data supported or refuted your hypothesis. You may want to include any ideas that this experiment generated before you forget them. This is where you can make suggestions to improve your experimental design and say what you plan to do next (e.g., “next time I may want to harvest a sample from 5 inches below the surface because I think that the temperature at the surface is too cold to get a diversity of protists…”)
+
1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.
-
Remember, unless your data is recorded in a notebook in an accurate and precise fashion, it can never be used to advance science!!!
+
2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.

Current revision

Lab 5: Invertebrates

Tunji Odunlami

Instructor: Alyssa Pederson

July 14, 2014


Introduction


The purpose of this lab was to understand the importance of invertebrates and learn how simple systems evolved into more complex systems. Although invertebrates may appear to be simple, many organisms have specialized structures and cells accompanying a complex overall body (Bentley, 2014). Similar to humans, some organism are bilaterally symmetrical and maintain the three germ layers of tissue, which are ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In this experiment, soil invertebrates found in a specific transect were studied. A variety of organisms can be found in soil or leaf matter. This includes invertebrates that prey on other organisms, or survive from using plant material (Bentley, 2014). Since most soil invertebrates are arthropods, then the majority of the organisms found in the Berlese Funnel will be arthropods. The hypothesis of this experiment states that there will be arthropods found in transect 5.


Materials and Method


The first part of this lab required the observation of acoelmates, pseudocoelmates, and coelmates. Organisms such as the earthworm, nematoda and planaria were viewed under the microscope and characteristics of each cross section were noted. The next part of this lab was to analyze invertebrates collected in the Berlese flask. There structure, shape and phylum was then recorded.


Results


The results of this experiment accept the hypothesis. There was evidence of arthropods in the Berlese Funnel plant litter. All organisms found within the plant litter were arthropods. The four organisms identified in the plant litter were a fly, a flea, millipede, and a sucking lice. The organisms in the funnel all were bilaterally symmetrical, apart from the sucking lice which displayed radial symmetry.



Tables and Graphs



Table 1.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjOE51UEtqZVZEZ2c/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 1.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjTDhBcmp3R1dKYkphc19LTHlxdl9KUzRLdEU4/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 2.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjSXNwSGhPZlFlQV9pRWttUHh4bjBFTUNDY3Vv/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 3.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjaGRRUTRHRWJMNW5QZlhQdGZ4RWlJSHdSbDRB/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 4.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjWktVS01JUWg3RUxLSk4za3lQSmpBeDJuQXJv/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 5. Food web.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjbHc4X1k2R25IUmltM2JzR2ZacW81NFJOeWtr/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 6. Vertebrate classification


https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRXNneGNFUzRYSGdVWjFNRjV6dlE3VThzY3lF/edit?usp=sharing


Discussion


The purpose of this lab was to understand the importance of invertebrates and learn how simple systems evolved into more complex systems. All organisms found in the Berlese funnel can be characterized as arthropods. This finding led to the accepting of the hypothesis. It is understandable that only arthropods were found in the plant litter. Most of the animals on earth fall into the arthropod category. This means there will be a wide variety of characteristics displayed for arthropods and this was shown in this experiment. Although most of the animals found were bilaterally symmetrical, there was also the sucking lice which had radial symmetry. All organisms also differed in size and shape, suggesting that they may have acquired separate niches. The fly and the flea had wings, but the millipede and sucking lice did not. Also, all of these microorganisms appear to be very small, as they are measured in micrometers. There are clearly similarities and differences in the arthropod phylum, and this was aptly displayed in todays lab.

The food web shown in figure 5. illustrates trophic relationships in an ecosystem. All ecosystems display energy transfer between trophic levels. As shown, in a community you may have primary producers at the bottom of the trophic level. Primary producers are things like plants that can make their own organic material. The organisms found in the plant litter from the experiment would be in the second trophic level. These animals eat the primary producers, and are referred to as primary consumers. The next level would be secondary consumers, such as a worm or bird. These animals consume primary decomposers and consumers and eat organisms such as arthropods. Each time you consume an organism in a trophic level, energy is transferred until that energy is transferred back to where it started, with primary producers.


References


1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.







Lab 4. Plantae and Fungi.

Tunji Odunlami

Instructor: Alyssa Pederson

July 9, 2014

Introduction


The purpose of this lab was to understand the characteristics and diversity of plants, and appreciate the functions of fungi. Plants are significant because without them humans can not exist. Plants are multicellular organisms that produce oxygen and rid the air of excess carbon dioxide (Lehman, 2009). Plants have specialized structures such as the stomata, that function in gas exchange. The xylem of a leaf is the vascular tissue which transports water and minerals up to the leaves. The phloem allows sugars to flow to the roots of a plant(Lehman, 2009). Other flowering plants are called angiosperms, and they house their reproductive organs inside the flower. Fungi are also important organisms and have significant functions within the ecosystem. They are natural recyclers, and some maintain symbiosis with plants. This experiment examined both plants and fungi, and noted their structure as well as their function.

Materials and Method


This experiment required obtaining a leaf litter sample from a transect. About 500 grams of plant litter was transferred to a small bag. Then, samples from five plants were taken and placed in another bag, along with seeds, and pine cones. The five plants were characterized based on their size, shape, and specialized structures. The next step of this experiment analyzed plant vascularization, cell specialization, and plant reproduction. Different fungi was also observed and structures such as hyphae and mycelium were noted. The last part of this experiment was to set up a Berlese funnel in order to collect invertebrates.

Results


The results of this experiment showed that most of the plants in transect 5 were similar in shape, structure, and color. No seeds were brought back from transect five. Most of the plants were green in color and were similar in shape, but the size was different. Also, all the transect sample plants appeared to be vascular, although some differed in their specific pattern. The first four plants were dicot and shared diploid stages of the life cycle.

The fungi examined was the Rhizopus or bread mold. This fungi had small dark spots called sporangia and visible mycelium that looked like long extending branches.

Tables and Graphs


Table 1.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjUlFjTE5EWWgzRHM/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 1. Transect sample plant 1.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjTld0QzcwZGY0YkV4LUU0TGJuUjNpMzRiOGhJ/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 2. Transect sample plant 2.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjM0JFVU82X1puNmxRM21pNHVOUm5HM1BWR1dZ/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 3. Transect sample plant 3.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRjhsR0hTbHRsNU10akRpTWVybU13ZlQwRVlr/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 4. Transect sample plant 4.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjUkZwOVpHY09xUzR5SzBfZ01rYmE1UXFMWWtJ/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 5. Transect sample plant 5.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjdkRxVExsUmNqMUVjMDRHMy12WVNCUS1ydklj/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 6. (Rhizopus Zigspores)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjb2RoX0VTWlNhTkxFVzBRamVzTXVaYUcyeGl3/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 7. (Fungi Rhizopus breadmold)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjR3VBQXRFUFdfcUV2MWtFNEQ5am01YXNYYlUw/edit?usp=sharing


Discussion


The experimental purpose of this lab was to have a better understanding of the diversity of plants and fungi. Upon observing Rhizopus zigspores under the microscope, it was clear that it was a fungus. The sporangia was clearly visible and appeared as small circular black structures. The mycelium was also present throughout the structure and looked like skinny branches. Bread mold was then examined and the same structures were visible but the mycelium was less visible and looked more condense. According to this description, the fungi examined belong to the Ascomycota division. This division is the largest and includes yeast, molds, and mildews.

Fungi are important because they are decomposers and provide mechanisms necessary for the survival of the ecosystem (Bentley, 2014). Fungi ultimately play a crucial role in the biosphere. They release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and nitrogenous material into soil (Bentley, 2014). These products are used by plants and plants provide oxygen necessary for survival.




References


1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.










Lab 3. Microbiology and identifying Bacteria

Tunji Odunlami

Instructor: Alyssa Pederson

July 7, 2014


Introduction



The purpose of this experiment was to understand the characteristics of bacteria and observe antibiotic resistance. Over the years, bacteria have grown resistant to antibiotics. Research shows that tetracycline resistant bacteria have been found in increasing numbers of species and as a result, reduced the effectiveness of tetracycline (Roberts, 1996). There are now specific tetracycline resistant genes in bacteria. This experiment analyzes this sensitivity, as well as the mechanism of action for the antibiotic tetracycline. Tetracycline works by breaking through the bacteria cell wall by passive diffusion and in the process inhibits bacteria growth by destroying the cell membrane (Schnappinger, 1996) . This experiment compares the growth rate of microorganisms in the presence of tetracycline and regular nutrient agar. The hypothesis of this experiment states that the average number of bacteria will be higher in agar plates with out tetracycline.

Materials and Method


This lab required the observing of microorganisms. In a prior experiment, serial dilutions were made and used in conjunction with nutrient agar plates. Tetracycline was added to half of the agar plates, and they amount of bacteria growth was later recorded. The characteristics of the bacteria was also examined to measure the effect of tetracycline. Two organisms from the nutrient agar plate and tetracycline plate were then viewed using oil immersion.

The next procedure required gram staining. A sterile loop was used to scrape bacteria on the surface of the agar plates. The slides used were heat fixed and then while working with a staining tray, the slides were covered with crystal violet for one minute. This stain was rinsed and then covered in Grams Iodine for one minute. The slide was then decolorized using alcohol and smeared with safranin stain for 30 seconds. The slide was allowed to dry and then it was observed using 40x and the oil objective

PCR sequencing was the next step. A single colony of bacteria was transferred to 100 microliters of water. This was incubated at 100 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes. The centrifuge boiled samples for an additional five minutes. During this period 20 microliters of primer was added and the, 5 microliters of supernatant was transferred to the 16s PCR reaction.

Results


The results of this lab showed an increase in bacteria growth for the nutrient agar plates in comparison to the tetracycline. The maximum amount of colonies counted on the tetracycline plate was 7. The maximum number on the agar plate was over 100. The results shown in table 1 display the amount of colonies per ml. Table two shows that most of the bacteria was gram negative and spherical in shape. The colonies appear to be punctiform and few were motile. The bacteria also retained a faint odor.

Tables and Graphs



Table 1 ( Serial Dilutions Results)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcW9uSUVDb1BXY1E/edit?usp=sharing


Table 2 (Bacteria Count)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjQ3J6Z05nY1lxQnc/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 1: (Nutrient agar 10^-3)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjZjBPSjdPaUttOXJYdFNUbTc3Y2F1NHJGRUZv/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 2: (Nutrient agar 10^-9)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjRlBidnh0M2M3cVBveHJVOVd3azlBby1PYmdJ/edit?usp=sharing


Figure 3: (Tetracycline 10^-3)


https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjMERKN2plaEw3T205U3BNLXEtbjBZbjQ5LVlj/edit?usp=sharing


Discussion


The results of this experiment accept the hypothesis that more bacteria colonies will grow when tetracycline is not present. The difference in the colony growth is represented in table 2. This table shows that on average, There were more colonies and faster growth on the nutrient agar plates. For example, when the dilution factors were the same at 10^-3, the nutrient agar resulted in 100 plus colonies while the tet. plate resulted in virtually no visible bacteria. These results suggest that although bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, tetracycline is still effective in neutralizing bacterial fungi.

Considering the niche of archaea, it is unlikely that they would ever be found on the agar plates. That is because archaea grow in extreme environments including hot springs, and the bottom of the ocean (Bentley, 2014. If the bacteria were cultivated for longer it is likely that the smell would become stronger and the appearance would change from week to week. This is because bacteria are known to spread and multiply quickly. As each week passes and more and more bacteria engulf the nutrient, a change in smell and appearance would be expected.


References


1.Schnappinger, D. (1996, June 1). Antiobiotic Action. Environmental Sciences and Pollution, 165, 355-369.

2.Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

3.Roberts M. Tetracycline resistance determinants: Mechanisms of action, regulation of expression, genetic mobility, and distribution. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1996;19:1-24.




Lab 2. Identifying Algae and Protists

Tunji Odunlami

Instructor: Alyssa Pederson

July 2, 2014

Introduction


The purpose of this lab was to identify organisms using a dichotomous key, and understand the characteristics of algae and protists. A population is known as a group of organisms from the same species that occupy the same niche (lehman, 2009). The objective of this experiment expands on this idea, as it examines protists and algae from the same transect. Organisms such as plants are autotrophs, and synthesize organic compounds from light in a process called photosynthesis (Lehman, 2009). This mode of acquiring energy is different from that of heterotrophs that rely on engulfing their prey (Lehman, 2009). If energy can be obtained from light, then photosynthesizing organisms are more likely to use this method for obtaining organic materials.The experimental hypothesis for this lab states that photosynthetic organisms will only be found near the surface of the hay fusion culture.

Materials and Methods


This experiment required the usage of a dichotomous key to identify unknown organisms. Four unknown organisms from two different niches were identified using the key. The microorganisms growing on both the surface of the liquid and at the bottom of the hay infusion culture represented the two different niches. The hay infusion culture was also observed for characteristics like color and visible plant matter. The next step involved preparing and plating serial dilutions. This was done by labeling four tubes with, 10^-2, 10^-4, 10^-6, and 10^-8 markers. 100 microliters from the culture was added to 10mls of broth in the tube. This step was repeated to make a 10^-8 dilutions. Further dilutions were done using four nutrient agar and four tetracycline plates. 100 microliters from each test tube was spread on the agar plates. This was repeated to make a 10^-9 dilution factor.

Results


The hay infusion was observed and appeared to be opaque with a slight yellow and brown tint. There was plant matter and debris dispersed at the bottom of the culture. The culture was also odorless. The specimen found near the top of the culture was the Paramecium and Amoeba. The organisms at the bottom of the culture were believed to be Colpidium and Chlamydomnas.

Tables and Graphs



Figure 1

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjZkNURUNKWVJSRy1sWHM1ZFZ3RmRrNEQ4T09r/edit?usp=sharing

(Serial dilution diagram)


Figure 2

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjNURfaHRFU1pSN0E/edit?usp=sharing

(Hay infusion culture)


Figure 3

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjV0o5MGprTkdwemxUM3Rqa3lDT2hYLUNMdlRV/edit?usp=sharing

(paramecium)


Figure 4

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcG9WSHZPR0d0ZlRWbGFSZENlWlF0NDE1VVpF/edit?usp=sharing


(colpidium)


Figure 5

https://drive.google.com/a/student.american.edu/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjNDQ1YmJXTzJWWjlzTmVOWi1pZ3J6RE8zZHUw/edit?usp=sharing

(Chlamydomonas)

Figure 6

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjc0NvWFhzcFgxTHVWMEJhVWY3Q2VPbmhiS01N/edit?usp=sharing


(amoeba)


Discussion


The experimental hypothesis for this lab states that photosynthesizing organisms will only be found near the surface of the hay fusion culture. The results of this experiment led to this hypothesis being rejected. The results found that unicellular eukaryotes inhabited the surface. These organisms were the paramecium and amoeba. Unlike the algae, protists do not photosynthesize (Bentley, 2014). Amoeba are also protists, and they engulf bacteria (Bentley, 2014). The bottom of the culture also exhibited more free living protozoa such as Colpidium. Chlamydomonas was also observed at the bottom of the culture.

Organisms away from the plant matter versus being close may use the resources in its environment differently based on the organisms niche. The type of food, and how it consumes energy are all factors that shape an organisms niche (Lehman, 2009). So in theory, photosynthetic species may be found near the surface or closer to light than organisms that directly ingest prey. This idea was not substantiated in this experiment. Paramecium and Amoeba were observed at the top or near the surface of the culture. The amoeba appeared colorless and with out any distinct shape. They also were motile and approximately 25 micrometers in size. The paramecium had an oral shape and appeared ciliated. It was long, colorless, and about 50 micrometers in size. Both Paramecium and the Amoeba are motile and non-photosynthesizing. The unicellular and motile algae Chlamydomonas was observed and found at the bottom of the surface. It was 50 micrometers in size and looked to have some organelles. Chlamydomonas have chloroplasts, although this was not clearly observed, and have the ability to photosynthesize. The last organism found at the bottom of the surface was the colpidium, which had a smaller body in comparison to the other organisms, and was much faster. This protist does not have the ability to photosynthesize.

The Chlamydomonas meets all the needs of life described as, responding to stimuli, being made up of cells, evolution, reproduction, and taking and using energy. The Chlamydomonas is a unicellular, and uses a flagella to interact with its environment. It also has a chloroplast and is capable of photosynthesis. Along with being isogamous, Chlamydomonas is thought to be the origin of multicellular evolution in the volvacine line (Bentley, 2014).

Some sources of error included the dichotomous key. Using this to identify unknown organisms presented problems. It is likely that we incorrectly identified a certain organism because it was difficult to gage specific features in the organisms. Also, determining the size in micrometers of each organism was a source of error. Many of the organisms were motile and so it was problematic when trying to accurately measure using the ocular meter. This lab can be improved upon in the future by perhaps allowing for a longer incubation period. If the hay infusion culture was observed for another two months, it is likely that more organisms would appear, most notably bacteria. Once the plant matter and food from the culture is used up, the protists could die since they are heterotrophs. This would put protists at a disadvantage, and one would expect more photosynthetic organisms to dominate the remains of the infusion culture since they can obtain nutrients through photosynthesis.




References

1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.





Lab 1. Biological Life at AU Campus

Tunji Odunlami

Instructor: Alyssa Pedersen

June 30, 2014


Introduction


The purpose of this experiment was to make observations that would allow for a better understanding of natural selection and how it drives evolution. There are millions of different species that live on earth, some of which are unidentified, and these groups of species can coexist while inhabiting the same area at the same time (Bentley, 2014). The transect analyzed in this experiment was an open area with exposure to the sun. The topography of transect 5 led to the hypothesis stating that there will be more photosynthetic specimen in transect 5 than the other locations.

Materials and Methods


This experiment required the observation of green algae in the Volvocine line. The samples of green algae examined were the Chlamydomonas, Volvox, and Gonium. Characteristics such as the number of cells, mechanisms of motility, and colony size were determined and later recorded. This was followed by observing a niche at American Universities campus. A 20 by 20 meter transect was marked and general characteristics such as topography, location, and abiotic components were identified and recorded. This experiment entailed the making of a Hay Fusion Culture. This was done by weighing 10 to 12 grams of soil from the transect and placing it in a jar with 500ml of water. About .1 grams of dried milk was mixed into the jar for 10 seconds. The top of the jar was then removed and placed on a flat surface.

Results


Transect 5 appeared to have both abiotic and biotic components. Ants were seen covering several rocks along with a brown bird on a tree. The tree appeared to be approximately 20 to 25 feet in height. This tree stood directly in the middle of the transect and was visibly bigger that the other trees. The transect was filled with green patches of moss and occasional spots of long green grass. Soil was also seen on the ground in the midst of rocks and many different shaped stones. The largest stone was seen directly east of the transect and stood out in comparison to the other stones because of its apparent mass.

Tables and Graphs



Table 1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjcFVEdU5NLXlYWlk/edit?usp=sharing

(Abiotic and Biotic components Table)


Figure 1 https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjbTVtMW50YkZkczg/edit?usp=sharing

(Aerial view of Transect 5)

Figure 2 https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjS1hiUnRUUVVOQ3M/edit?usp=sharing

( Different rocks and stones in Transect 5, also displaying patches of moss and grass)


Figure 3 https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B86Vlz1JSBUjOHNhS05qMmVXRDA/edit?usp=sharing

(Tree centered directly in the middle of transect. A dry landscape relative to other areas of transect 5)



Discussion


Populations of several different species are assembled in nature in what is known as a community (Lehman, 2009). This experiment exemplified this fact, as different species were observed cohabiting transect 5. Transect 5 appeared to be still developing as some areas were more cultivated than others. The ground and soil was warm to the touch, there were small plants, few trees, and different visible biotic organisms. Patches of moss were widespread along with intermittent weeds dispersed throughout the landscape. This experiment also observed samples of green algae from the volvacine line. The Chlamydomonas, Gonium, and Volvox samples displayed different characteristcs such as size and mechanisms of reproduction that may offer insight about the beginning of life and evolution.

In the future, the experimental design of this lab can be improved. One such improvement includes the dimensions of the transect. A bigger transect could be used in the future to observe a wider array of species in the environment. Also, only 10 to 12 grams of ground sample was used in this experiment. A larger sample could be used to analyze whether or not this affects the biodiversity of the ground sample. Lastly, more people could observe the transect instead of just two as with this experiment. There was only a limited amount of time to observe the transect and with more observers, we could better identify the abiotic and biotic aspects of the environment.

During this experiment we encountered some forms of error. One source of error was the sample itself. In theory, the 10 to 12 gram ground sample was representative of the ground and surface in our transect. This is highly unlikely due to the different landscape within transect 5. Some areas of the transect were muddy, while others appeared more dry. Some parts of the transect had lots of grass while others parts were barren. These factors definitely contributed to the type of ground vegetation sample we extracted. Another source of error involved the weighing of the .1gm dried milk. This amount was very small and difficult to transfer. Therefore, it is unlikely that exactly .1gms was successfully transferred into the Hay Infusion Culture.

The hypothesis of this experiment suggests that the most photosynthetic specimen would be found in transect 5. This conclusion was based on the landscape and design of the transect. Data has not been fully collected in this two part experiment, and we will look to future labs to conclude whether or not to accept this hypothesis.


References

1. Bentley, M. (2014). General biology 210 laboratory manual. Formally published manuscript, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

2. Lehman, R. (2009). Biology. (2nd ed.). New York: Barrons Education.

Personal tools