User:Timothee Flutre/Notebook/Postdoc/2012/05/16

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m (Typical templates for Python scripts, C++ programs and others: in c++, rmv gzstream)
(Typical templates for Python scripts, C++ programs and others: upload code on github + refactor)
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<!-- ##### DO NOT edit above this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->
<!-- ##### DO NOT edit above this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->
-
==Typical templates for Python scripts, C++ programs and others==
+
==About programming==
-
It is always rewarding on the long term to start any piece of computer software with a minimum amount of generic code (verbose, command-line options, help message, license, etc). But it's a pain to write all this every time, right? So below are my typical templates for any Python script, C++ programs and others.
+
* '''Resources''': most of the time, it's not necessary to buy a book, search online instead!
 +
** [http://software-carpentry.org/ Software Carpentry]
 +
** [http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ C++ tutorial]
-
* '''Python''': it is assumed that the code below is copied into a file named "MyClass.py".
+
* '''Program templates''': it is always rewarding on the long term to start any piece of computer software with a minimum amount of generic code (verbose, command-line options, help message, license, etc). But it's a pain to write all this every time, right? And often we know how to do something in one language but not in another. So below are my typical templates for any C++/Python/R/Bash program, as well as Beamer presentation.
 +
** '''C++''': download the file [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/myprogram.cpp myprogram.cpp], as well as [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/utils_io.cpp utils_io.cpp] along with its header [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/utils_io.hpp utils_io.hpp].
 +
** '''Python''': download the file [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/myprogram.py myprogram.py]
 +
** '''R''': download the file [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/myprogram.py myprogram.R]
 +
** '''Bash''': download the file [http://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/myprogram.py myprogram.bash]
-
<nowiki>
+
* '''Language-independent user documentation''': I'm a firm believer that it is necessary to add some user documentation, even  minimal, to any program. An easy way to do this is to simply generate such documentation from the "help" message, as long as it is "properly" formatted (see [http://www.gnu.org/s/help2man/ help2man]). The following commands work for any programming language:
-
#!/usr/bin/env python
+
-
 
+
-
# Author: Timothee Flutre
+
-
# License: GPL-3
+
-
# Aim: does this and that
+
-
# help2man -o MyClass.man ./MyClass.py
+
-
# groff -mandoc MyClass.man > MyClass.ps
+
-
 
+
-
import sys
+
-
import os
+
-
import getopt
+
-
import time
+
-
import datetime
+
-
import math
+
-
 
+
-
 
+
-
class MyClass(object):
+
-
   
+
-
    def __init__(self):
+
-
        self.verbose = 1
+
-
        self.input = ""
+
-
       
+
-
       
+
-
    def help(self):
+
-
        msg = "`%s' does this and that.\n" % os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
+
-
        msg += "\n"
+
-
        msg += "Usage: %s [OPTIONS] ...\n" % os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
+
-
        msg += "\n"
+
-
        msg += "Options:\n"
+
-
        msg += " -h, --help\tdisplay the help and exit\n"
+
-
        msg += " -V, --version\toutput version information and exit\n"
+
-
        msg += " -v, --verbose\tverbosity level (0/default=1/2/3)\n"
+
-
        msg += " -i\tinput"
+
-
        msg += "\n"
+
-
        msg += "Examples:\n"
+
-
        print msg; sys.stdout.flush()
+
-
       
+
-
       
+
-
    def version(self):
+
-
        msg = "%s 0.1\n" % os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
+
-
        msg += "\n"
+
-
        msg += "License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>\n"
+
-
        msg += "This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO\n"
+
-
        msg += "warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.\n"
+
-
        print msg; sys.stdout.flush()
+
-
       
+
-
       
+
-
    def setAttributesFromCmdLine(self):
+
-
        try:
+
-
            opts, args = getopt.getopt( sys.argv[1:], "hVv:i:",
+
-
                                        ["help", "version", "verbose="])
+
-
        except getopt.GetoptError, err:
+
-
            sys.stderr.write("%s\n" % str(err))
+
-
            self.help()
+
-
            sys.exit(2)
+
-
        for o, a in opts:
+
-
            if o == "-h" or o == "--help":
+
-
                self.help()
+
-
                sys.exit(0)
+
-
            elif o == "-V" or o == "--version":
+
-
                self.version()
+
-
                sys.exit(0)
+
-
            elif o == "-v" or o == "--verbose":
+
-
                self.verbose = int(a)
+
-
            elif o == "-i":
+
-
                self.input = a
+
-
            else:
+
-
                assert False, "unhandled option"
+
-
               
+
-
               
+
-
    def checkAttributes(self):
+
-
        if self.input == "":
+
-
            msg = "ERROR: missing compulsory option -i"
+
-
            sys.stderr.write("%s\n\n" % msg)
+
-
            self.help()
+
-
            sys.exit(1)
+
-
        if not os.path.exists(self.input):
+
-
            msg = "ERROR: can't find '%s'" % self.input
+
-
            sys.stderr.write("%s\n\n" % msg)
+
-
            self.help()
+
-
            sys.exit(1)
+
-
           
+
-
           
+
-
    def run(self):
+
-
        self.checkAttributes()
+
-
       
+
-
        if self.verbose > 0:
+
-
            msg = "START %s" % time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
+
-
            startTime = time.time()
+
-
            print msg; sys.stdout.flush()
+
-
           
+
-
        # ... specific code ...
+
-
       
+
-
        if self.verbose > 0:
+
-
            msg = "END %s" % time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
+
-
            endTime = time.time()
+
-
            runLength = datetime.timedelta(seconds=
+
-
                                          math.floor(endTime - startTime))
+
-
            msg += " (%s)" % str(runLength)
+
-
            print msg; sys.stdout.flush()
+
-
           
+
-
           
+
-
if __name__ == "__main__":
+
-
    i = MyClass()
+
-
    i.setAttributesFromCmdLine()
+
-
    i.run()
+
-
</nowiki>
+
-
 
+
-
* '''C++''': it is assumed that the code below is copied into a file named "myprogram.cpp" and that the file "[https://github.com/timflutre/quantgen/blob/master/utils.cpp utils.cpp]" is present in the same directory, along with the corresponding header <nowiki>utils.h</nowiki>.
+
  <nowiki>
  <nowiki>
-
/** \file myprogram.cpp
+
help2man -o myprogram.man ./myprogram
-
*
+
man ./myprogram.man
-
*  `myprogram' does this and that.
+
groff -mandoc myprogram.man > myprogram.ps
-
*  Copyright (C) 2011,2012 Timothee Flutre
+
ps2pdf myprogram.ps myprogram.pdf
-
*
+
-
*  This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+
-
*  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+
-
*  the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+
-
*  (at your option) any later version.
+
-
*
+
-
*  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+
-
*  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+
-
*  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+
-
*  GNU General Public License for more details.
+
-
*
+
-
*  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+
-
*  along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
-
*
+
-
*  g++ -Wall -g utils.cpp myprogram.cpp -lgsl -lgslcblas -lz -o myprogram
+
-
*  help2man -o myprogram.man ./myprogram
+
-
groff -mandoc myprogram.man > myprogram.ps
+
-
*/
+
-
 
+
-
#include <cmath>
+
-
#include <ctime>
+
-
#include <getopt.h>
+
-
 
+
-
#include <iostream>
+
-
#include <string>
+
-
using namespace std;
+
-
 
+
-
#include "utils.h"
+
-
 
+
-
/** \brief Display the help on stdout.
+
-
*/
+
-
void help (char ** argv)
+
-
{
+
-
  cout << "`" << argv[0] << "'"
+
-
      << " does this and that." << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " [OPTIONS] ..." << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Options:" << endl
+
-
      << "  -h, --help\tdisplay the help and exit" << endl
+
-
      << "  -V, --version\toutput version information and exit" << endl
+
-
      << "  -v, --verbose\tverbosity level (0/default=1/2/3)" << endl
+
-
      << "  -i, --in\tinput" << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Examples:" << endl
+
-
      << "  " << argv[0] << " -i <input>" << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Remarks:" << endl
+
-
      << "  This is my typical template file for C++." << endl
+
-
    ;
+
-
}
+
-
 
+
-
/** \brief Display version and license information on stdout.
+
-
*/
+
-
void version (char ** argv)
+
-
{
+
-
  cout << argv[0] << " 0.1" << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Copyright (C) 2011,2012 T. Flutre." << endl
+
-
      << "License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>" << endl
+
-
      << "This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO" << endl
+
-
      << "warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE." << endl
+
-
      << endl
+
-
      << "Written by T. Flutre." << endl;
+
-
}
+
-
 
+
-
/** \brief Parse the command-line arguments and check the values of the
+
-
*  compulsory ones.
+
-
*/
+
-
void
+
-
parse_args (
+
-
  int argc,
+
-
  char ** argv,
+
-
  string & input,
+
-
  int & verbose)
+
-
{
+
-
  int c = 0;
+
-
  while (1)
+
-
  {
+
-
    static struct option long_options[] =
+
-
      {
+
-
        {"help", no_argument, 0, 'h'},
+
-
        {"version", no_argument, 0, 'V'},
+
-
        {"verbose", required_argument, 0, 'v'},
+
-
        {"input", required_argument, 0, 'i'},
+
-
        {0, 0, 0, 0}
+
-
      };
+
-
    int option_index = 0;
+
-
    c = getopt_long (argc, argv, "hVv:i:",
+
-
                    long_options, &option_index);
+
-
    if (c == -1)
+
-
      break;
+
-
    switch (c)
+
-
    {
+
-
    case 0:
+
-
      if (long_options[option_index].flag != 0)
+
-
        break;
+
-
    case 'h':
+
-
      help (argv);
+
-
      exit (0);
+
-
    case 'V':
+
-
      version (argv);
+
-
      exit (0);
+
-
    case 'v':
+
-
      verbose = atoi(optarg);
+
-
      break;
+
-
    case 'i':
+
-
      input = optarg;
+
-
      break;
+
-
    case '?':
+
-
      printf ("\n"); help (argv);
+
-
      abort ();
+
-
    default:
+
-
      printf ("\n"); help (argv);
+
-
      abort ();
+
-
    }
+
-
  }
+
-
  if (input.empty())
+
-
  {
+
-
    fprintf (stderr, "ERROR: missing compulsory option -i\n\n");
+
-
    help (argv);
+
-
    exit (1);
+
-
  }
+
-
  if (! doesFileExist (input))
+
-
  {
+
-
    fprintf (stderr, "ERROR: can't find '%s'\n\n", input.c_str());
+
-
    help (argv);
+
-
    exit (1);
+
-
  }
+
-
}
+
-
 
+
-
int main (int argc, char ** argv)
+
-
{
+
-
  string input;
+
-
  int verbose = 1;
+
-
 
+
-
  parse_args (argc, argv, input, verbose);
+
-
 
+
-
  time_t startRawTime, endRawTime;
+
-
  if (verbose > 0)
+
-
  {
+
-
    time (&startRawTime);
+
-
    cout << "START " << argv[0] << " (" << time2string (startRawTime) << ")"
+
-
        << endl << flush;
+
-
    printCmdLine (argc, argv);
+
-
  }
+
-
 
+
-
  // ... specific code ...
+
-
 
+
-
  if (verbose > 0)
+
-
  {
+
-
    time (&endRawTime);
+
-
    cout << "END " << argv[0] << " (" << time2string (endRawTime) << ")"
+
-
        << endl
+
-
        << "elapsed -> " << elapsedTime(startRawTime, endRawTime)
+
-
        << endl
+
-
        << "max.mem -> " << getMaxMemUsedByProcess () << " kB"
+
-
        << endl;
+
-
  }
+
-
 
+
-
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
+
-
}
+
</nowiki>
</nowiki>
-
* '''Latex-Beamer''': it is assumed that the code below is copied into a file named "mypresentation.tex". Several packages are assumed to be already installed. The current directory is also assumed to contain a directory named "figures" in which are saved all picture files included in the presentation.
+
* '''Latex-Beamer''': it is assumed that the code below is copied into a file named "mypresentation.tex" and that several packages are already installed. The current directory is also assumed to contain a sub-directory named "figures" in which are saved all picture files included in the presentation.
  <nowiki>
  <nowiki>
-
% Author: Timothée Flutre                                                                                                                                  
+
% Copyright (C) 2012 Timothee Flutre.
\documentclass{beamer}
\documentclass{beamer}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsmath}
-
\usepackage{bm} % to have mathematical symbols in bold                                                                                                      
+
\usepackage{bm} % to have mathematical symbols in bold
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks, linkcolor=black, urlcolor=gray}
\hypersetup{colorlinks, linkcolor=black, urlcolor=gray}
Line 306: Line 41:
\usepackage[francais]{babel}
\usepackage[francais]{babel}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
-
 
\graphicspath{{./figures/}}
\graphicspath{{./figures/}}
-
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                              
+
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
\setbeamertemplate{caption}[numbered]
\setbeamertemplate{caption}[numbered]
Line 328: Line 62:
       \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshorttitle
       \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshorttitle
     \end{beamercolorbox}
     \end{beamercolorbox}
-
     \begin{beamercolorbox}[wd=.27\paperwidth,ht=2.25ex,dp=1ex,right]{section in head/foot}%                                                                
+
     \begin{beamercolorbox}[wd=.27\paperwidth,ht=2.25ex,dp=1ex,right]{section in head/foot}%
       \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshortdate{}\hspace*{2em}
       \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshortdate{}\hspace*{2em}
       \insertframenumber{} / \inserttotalframenumber\hspace*{2ex}
       \insertframenumber{} / \inserttotalframenumber\hspace*{2ex}
Line 345: Line 79:
}
}
-
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                              
+
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
\title[Short title]{Long title}
\title[Short title]{Long title}
Line 354: Line 88:
begin{document}
begin{document}
-
\begin{frame}                                                                                                                                              
+
\begin{frame}
-
\titlepage                                                                                                                                                  
+
\titlepage
-
\end{frame}                                                                                                                                                
+
\end{frame}                                                                                                                      
-
                                                                                                                                                           
+
-
\begin{frame}                                                                                                                                               
+
-
\frametitle{Outline}                                                                                                                                       
+
-
\tableofcontents                                                                                                                                           
+
-
\end{frame}                                                                                                                                                 
+
-
\section{First section}
+
\begin{frame}
 +
\frametitle{Outline}
 +
\tableofcontents
 +
\end{frame}
 +
\section{First section}
\begin{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{I.1.}
\frametitle{I.1.}
Line 377: Line 110:
\frametitle{II.1.}
\frametitle{II.1.}
\begin{center}
\begin{center}
-
%\includegraphics[width=0.95\textwidth,height=0.90\textheight,keepaspectratio=true]{myplot}%                                                                      
+
%\includegraphics[width=0.95\textwidth,height=0.90\textheight,keepaspectratio=true]{myplot}%
\end{center}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
\end{frame}
Line 383: Line 116:
end{document}
end{document}
</nowiki>
</nowiki>
-
 
<!-- ##### DO NOT edit below this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->
<!-- ##### DO NOT edit below this line unless you know what you are doing. ##### -->

Revision as of 18:13, 11 October 2013

Project name Main project page
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About programming

  • Program templates: it is always rewarding on the long term to start any piece of computer software with a minimum amount of generic code (verbose, command-line options, help message, license, etc). But it's a pain to write all this every time, right? And often we know how to do something in one language but not in another. So below are my typical templates for any C++/Python/R/Bash program, as well as Beamer presentation.
  • Language-independent user documentation: I'm a firm believer that it is necessary to add some user documentation, even minimal, to any program. An easy way to do this is to simply generate such documentation from the "help" message, as long as it is "properly" formatted (see help2man). The following commands work for any programming language:
help2man -o myprogram.man ./myprogram
man ./myprogram.man
groff -mandoc myprogram.man > myprogram.ps
ps2pdf myprogram.ps myprogram.pdf

  • Latex-Beamer: it is assumed that the code below is copied into a file named "mypresentation.tex" and that several packages are already installed. The current directory is also assumed to contain a sub-directory named "figures" in which are saved all picture files included in the presentation.
% Copyright (C) 2012 Timothee Flutre.

\documentclass{beamer}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{bm} % to have mathematical symbols in bold
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks, linkcolor=black, urlcolor=gray}
\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage[francais]{babel}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

\graphicspath{{./figures/}}

%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

\setbeamertemplate{caption}[numbered]
\setbeamerfont{caption}{size=\scriptsize}
\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}
\setbeamercolor{alerted text}{fg=purple}

\setbeamertemplate{footline}
{
  \leavevmode
  \hbox{
    \hspace*{-0.06cm}
    \begin{beamercolorbox}[wd=.2\paperwidth,ht=2.25ex,dp=1ex,center]{author in head/foot}
      \usebeamerfont{author in head/foot}\insertshortauthor \hspace*{1em} \insertshortinstitute
    \end{beamercolorbox}
    \begin{beamercolorbox}[wd=.50\paperwidth,ht=2.25ex,dp=1ex,center]{section in head/foot}
      \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshorttitle
    \end{beamercolorbox}
    \begin{beamercolorbox}[wd=.27\paperwidth,ht=2.25ex,dp=1ex,right]{section in head/foot}%
      \usebeamerfont{section in head/foot}\insertshortdate{}\hspace*{2em}
      \insertframenumber{} / \inserttotalframenumber\hspace*{2ex}
    \end{beamercolorbox}
  }
  \vskip0pt
}

\AtBeginSection[]
{
  \begin{frame}
    \frametitle{Outline}
    \addtocounter{framenumber}{-1}
    \tableofcontents[currentsection]
  \end{frame}
}

%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

\title[Short title]{Long title}
\author[T. Flutre]{Timoth\'{e}e Flutre}
\institute[Short affiliation]{Long affiliation}
\date{\today}

begin{document}

\begin{frame}
\titlepage
\end{frame}                                                                                                                       

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Outline}
\tableofcontents
\end{frame}

\section{First section}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{I.1.}
\begin{itemize}
\item 
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}

\section{Second section}

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{II.1.}
\begin{center}
%\includegraphics[width=0.95\textwidth,height=0.90\textheight,keepaspectratio=true]{myplot}%
\end{center}
\end{frame}

end{document}


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