# HighPoint/CannonLab:Buffer and Osmolyte Solutions

(Difference between revisions)
 Revision as of 14:14, 28 February 2012 (view source)← Previous diff Revision as of 12:55, 29 February 2012 (view source) (→General rules for solution prep)Next diff → Line 32: Line 32: {{-}} {{-}} - ===General rules for solution prep=== + ===Volumetric solution prep (e.g. Molarities)=== - + + # Determine the desired concentrations and volumes + # Calculate the mass of solute needed and weigh solute + * Dissolve the solute + *# Add most of the water to a beaker with a stir bar + *#* A rule of thumb is subtract the grams of solute from the mL of solution desired and add that much water + *#** ''500 mL – 87 g potassium phosphate ≈ 400 mL water'' + *# While stirring, gradually add the solute to the water and stir until dissolved + * Add water to the final volume + *# If high precision is not required, add water to the line on the beaker at the desired volume + *# If high precision is required, transfer the solution to a volumetric flask and add water to the desired volume + *# If higher precision is required, prepare the solution gravimetrically ===Adjusting pH=== ===Adjusting pH===

## Preparing Buffers

Always wear gloves to avoid contamination of your solutions with bacteria!

### Stock Solutions

1. Prepare stock solutions of buffer components (typically 1 M)
2. Rinse clean storage bottle and filter flask an extra time
• Use type I, 18 MΩ purified water
• Drain and use your best aseptic technique from this point on
3. Filter stock solutions through 0.2 μm filter
4. Store in bottle for future use
• Keep the bottle closed as much as possible
• Always wear gloves and use clean instruments for removing aliquots
• This will extend the life of your stock solution before bacteria begin to grow in it

### Filtering

Nalgene Filter Assembly
• The filtration assembly is put together as in the image on the left
1. Place a 45 mm diameter, 0.2 μm pore size filter between the top and bottom halves
2. Close with the metal clamp
3. Place the entire assembly onto the mouth of a filter flask
4. Attach the side arm to an aspirator
5. Fill the reservoir with the solution to be filtered
• Repeat step 5 until the entire solution is filtered
• If the speed of filtration reduces drastically, consider replacing the filter membrane

### Volumetric solution prep (e.g. Molarities)

1. Determine the desired concentrations and volumes
2. Calculate the mass of solute needed and weigh solute
• Dissolve the solute
1. Add most of the water to a beaker with a stir bar
• A rule of thumb is subtract the grams of solute from the mL of solution desired and add that much water
• 500 mL – 87 g potassium phosphate ≈ 400 mL water
2. While stirring, gradually add the solute to the water and stir until dissolved
• Add water to the final volume
1. If high precision is not required, add water to the line on the beaker at the desired volume
2. If high precision is required, transfer the solution to a volumetric flask and add water to the desired volume
3. If higher precision is required, prepare the solution gravimetrically

## Useful Recipes

### pH 7 buffer, 10 mM Phosphate, 50 mM NaCl

Required Stock Solutions

• 1 M K2HPO4 (dibasic potassium phosphate)
• 1 M KH2PO4 (monobasic potassium phosphate)
• 2 M NaCl (sodium chloride)

To prepare 100 mL

• 0.490 mL K2HPO4
• 0.510 mL KH2PO4
• 2.50 mL NaCl
• 96.5 mL H2O