Gene Expression Round 2
Protein Kinase Activity
- ABL1: Activity of c-Abl protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. The t(9;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the BCR (MIM:151410) and ABL1 genes present in many cases of chronic myelogeneous leukemia.
- LMTK2: This protein interacts with several other proteins, such as Inhibitor-2 (Inh2), protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C), p35, and myosin VI.
- AKAP13: Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms containing c-terminal dbl oncogene homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains.
- NRG2: rough interaction with the ERBB family of receptors, this protein induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, glial, and other types of cells.
- PDGFRB: They have roles in the regulation of many biological processes including embryonic development, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and contribute to the pathophysiology of some diseases, including cancer. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the translocation, ETV6, leukemia gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia.
- MAPKAPK5: The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family.
- AATK: This gene is induced during apoptosis, and expression of this gene may be a necessary pre-requisite for the induction of growth arrest and/or apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. This gene has been shown to produce neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line.
- FES: This gene encodes the human cellular counterpart of a feline sarcoma retrovirus protein with transforming capabilities. Its chromosomal location has linked it to a specific translocation event identified in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
- FGFR1OP: FGFR1 oncogene partner
- HIPK2: The encoded protein interacts with homeodomain transcription factors and many other transcription factors such as p53.
protein tyrosine kinase activity
- MAP2K6: This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis. p38 activation results in cancer cell apoptosis
- N4BP2: The encoded protein can bind to both B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (BCL-3) and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4, (Nedd4) proteins.
structural molecule activity
- RPL26L1: This gene encodes a protein that shares high sequence similarity with ribosomal protein L26 (involved in regulation of p53 - cancer involved)
- CHI3L1: This gene encodes a glycoprotein member of the glycosyl hydrolase 18 family. The protein lacks chitinase activity and is secreted by activated macrophages, chondrocytes, neutrophils and synovial cells. The protein is thought to play a role in the process of inflammation and tissue remodeling.
- CTNNB1: Mutations in this gene are a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC), pilomatrixoma (PTR), medulloblastoma (MDB), and ovarian cancer.
signaling receptor activity
- SFRP4: Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. (Wnt-signaling is highly involved in various cancers)
- TGFBR3: This locus encodes the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor. The encoded receptor is a membrane proteoglycan that often functions as a co-receptor with other TGF-beta receptor superfamily members. Ectodomain shedding produces soluble TGFBR3, which may inhibit TGFB signaling. Decreased expression of this receptor has been observed in various cancers.
signal transducer activity
- AXIN2: The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway. Apparently, the deregulation of beta-catenin is an important event in the genesis of a number of malignancies. The AXIN2 gene has been mapped to 17q23-q24, a region that shows frequent loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer, neuroblastoma, and other tumors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with colorectal cancer with defective mismatch repair.
sequence-specific DNA binding
- IKZF1: This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins associated with chromatin remodeling. The expression of this protein is restricted to the fetal and adult hemo-lymphopoietic system, and it functions as a regulator of lymphocyte differentiation. Overexpression of some dominant-negative isoforms have been associated with B-cell malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
- TAL1: T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1
- FEV: ETS oncogene family
- RXRG: This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
- MSX1: This gene encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor during embryogenesis through interactions with components of the core transcription complex and other homeoproteins. It may also have roles in limb-pattern formation, craniofacial development, particularly odontogenesis, and tumor growth inhibition.
- CREB3L3: This gene encodes a member of the basic-leucine zipper family and the AMP-dependent transcription factor family. The encoded protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and acts as a transcription factor activated by cyclic AMP stimulation. The encoded protein binds the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and the box-B element and has been linked to acute inflammatory response, hepatocellular carcinoma, triglyceride metabolism, and hepcidin expression.
- RUNX3: It functions as a tumor suppressor, and the gene is frequently deleted or transcriptionally silenced in cancer.
G-protein coupled receptor activity
- ADRA1B: Thus, this normal cellular gene is identified as a protooncogene.
sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
- CDKN2A: his ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control.
- ST18: suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (breast carcinoma)
- WNT5A: The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene encodes a member of the WNT family that signals through both the canonical and non-canonical WNT pathways. This protein is a ligand for the seven transmembrane receptor frizzled-5 and the tyrosine kinase orphan receptor 2. This protein plays an essential role in regulating developmental pathways during embryogenesis. This protein may also play a role in oncogenesis.
- MECOM: This gene can undergo translocation with the AML1 gene, resulting in overexpression of this gene and the onset of leukemia.