- Originally discovered and characterized in the jellyfish Aeqorea victoria
- wtGFP sequence on NCBI
- 238 amino acids
- The tertiary structure is a fluorophore [Ser(65)-Tyr(66)-Gly(67)] nestled inside a protective beta barrel.
- Oxygen is required for maturation of the fluorophore
- Natural state is a dimer with a Kd of ~ 100 µM.
- GFPmut3b - S65G, S72A
- GFPmut3* - mutations from wt: S2R,S65G,S72A
- Emerald - F64L, S65T, S72A, N149K, M153T, I167T
- EGFP - inserted GTG as second codon, F64L, S65T + optimized for human codons with 35-fold increase in fluorescence over GFP 
- Additionally, "mutation of His231 to Leu, which was probably inadvertent and neutral". 
- yemGFP - F64L, S65T, A206K 
- Other variants and their mutations can be found in Shaner supplementary table 2 
- F64L: improve folding @37C
- S65T: 5-6x increase in amplitude and red shift
- S65(G|T) and T203(Y|F|W|H) -> YFP
- Y66W: GFP -> CFP
- Y66H: GFP -> BFP (more blue than CFP), dim, easily photobleached
- Y66F: excitation 360nm, emission 442nm
- R96A: slows cyclization reaction from minutes to months
- Y203I: eliminate excitation peak at 475nm, leaving lower peak of 399nm. emission remains at 511nm, producing large Stokes shift
- A206K: make monomeric
- Cormack BP, Valdivia RH, and Falkow S. . pmid:8707053.
- Andersen JB, Sternberg C, Poulsen LK, Bjorn SP, Givskov M, and Molin S. . pmid:9603842.
- Li X, Zhang G, Ngo N, Zhao X, Kain SR, and Huang CC. . pmid:9353317.
- Stricker J, Cookson S, Bennett MR, Mather WH, Tsimring LS, and Hasty J. . pmid:18971928.
- Shaner NC, Steinbach PA, and Tsien RY. . pmid:16299475.
- Prasher DC, Eckenrode VK, Ward WW, Prendergast FG, and Cormier MJ. . pmid:1347277.
original cloning of GFP
- Chalfie M, Tu Y, Euskirchen G, Ward WW, and Prasher DC. . pmid:8303295.
original use of GFP as a reporter
- Tsien RY. . pmid:9759496.
good review of GFP
- Molecular Biology and Muation of Green Fluorescent Protein (Book Chapter, Zacharias & Tsien)
GFP as a measure of gene expression
- Leveau JH and Lindow SE. . pmid:11698362.
- Iafolla MA, Mazumder M, Sardana V, Velauthapillai T, Pannu K, and McMillen DR. . pmid:18350571.
- Bagh S, Mazumder M, Velauthapillai T, Sardana V, Dong GQ, Movva AB, Lim LH, and McMillen DR. . pmid:18352063.
- Dong GQ and McMillen DR. . pmid:18352052.