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The Basics of Probiotics

Use of Probiotics: Present and Future

Oversight of Probiotics

iGEM 2009: Stanford's Approach to Probiotics

Probiotics and the Media links


  1. Romero PA and Arnold FH. Exploring protein fitness landscapes by directed evolution. Nat Rev Mol Cell Bio, 2009. [Romero2009]
  2. Crameri A, Whitehorn EA, Tate E, Stemmer WP. Improved green fluorescent protein by molecular evolution using DNA shuffling. Nat Biotechnol, 1996.


  3. Giver L, Gershenson A, Freskgard PO, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of a thermostable esterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1998.


  4. Cadwell RC and Joyce GF. Randomization of genes by PCR mutagenesis. Genome Res, 1992.


  5. Abou-Nader M and Benedik MJ. Rapid generation of random mutant libraries. Bioeng Bugs, 2010.


  6. Stemmer WP. Rapid evolution of a protein by in vitro DNA shuffling. Nature, 1994.


  7. Lin H and Cornish VW. Screening and selection methods for large-scale analysis of protein function.


  8. Leemhuis H, Kelly RM, Dijkhuizen L. Directed evolution of enzymes: library screening strategies. IUBMB Life, 2009.


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