AhmadWeek3

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***C: Ketoglutarate, Glutamate, Glutamine concentrations
***C: Ketoglutarate, Glutamate, Glutamine concentrations
==Part 2: Gene Expression==
==Part 2: Gene Expression==
 +
*Northern Analyses are RNA analyses that were done to see how the changes in nitrogen affect nitrogen-regulated genes
 +
*Figure 2 shows gene expression in response to different levels of NH4 concentrations
 +
**X axis: NH4 concentration
 +
**Y axis: Gene expression
 +
*Permease-encoding genes:
 +
**GAP1
 +
**PUT4
 +
*Biosynthetic genes
 +
**ILV5
 +
**HIS4
 +
**GDH1
 +
**GLN1
 +
==Part 3: Enzymes==
 +
*Figure 3 shows enzyme activity at different NH4 concentrations
 +
**X axis: NH4 concentration
 +
**Y axis: Enzyme activity
 +
*Enzymes Studied:
 +
**NADPH
 +
**NAD-DGH
 +
**GS Transferase
 +
*NADPH activity consistently decreased with increased NH4
 +
*NAD-GDH activity consistently increased with increased NH4
 +
*GS Transferase and Synthetase decreased slightly until 60 mM, but then leveled off with increased NH4
 +
*The conclusion of the paper is that that the nitrogen metabolism of <i> S. cerevisiae </i> is regulated by ammonia concentration
 +
**The species may have an ammonia sensor
 +
 +
==Word Definitions==
 +
#[http://www.example.com link title]
 +
#[http://www.example.com link title]

Revision as of 03:36, 31 January 2013

Contents

Part 1: Experimenting with different levels of ammonia

  • Saccharomyces cerevisae, a type of yeast, uses ammonia as its primary nitrogen source
    • Past research has shown that ammonia concentration affects growth
    • In this paper, the researches wanted to know if ammonia flux, and not concentration, is the limiting factor
  • Physiological Parameters
    • S. cerevisae was first grown in cultures with different levels of ammonia, but fixed glucose concentrations
    • Increases in the ammonia concentration from 29 to 61 mM showed a change in biomass from 4.9 to 8.2 g/L
    • After 61 mM, however, there was no significant increase in biomass
    • Formula to calculate ammonia flux: [dilution x (input ammonia concentration - residual ammonia concentration)/biomass]
    • At a level above 44 mM, oxygen consumption was equal to carbon dioxide production
  • Ketoglutarate, Glutamate, Glutamine concentrations as ammonia concentrations were increased
    • Ketoglutarate: Decreased
    • Glutamate: Increased
    • Glutamine: Increased
  • Figure 1
    • X axis: NH4 concentration
    • Y axis:
      • A: Residual NH4 concentration
      • B: 02 consumption/CO2 production
      • C: Ketoglutarate, Glutamate, Glutamine concentrations

Part 2: Gene Expression

  • Northern Analyses are RNA analyses that were done to see how the changes in nitrogen affect nitrogen-regulated genes
  • Figure 2 shows gene expression in response to different levels of NH4 concentrations
    • X axis: NH4 concentration
    • Y axis: Gene expression
  • Permease-encoding genes:
    • GAP1
    • PUT4
  • Biosynthetic genes
    • ILV5
    • HIS4
    • GDH1
    • GLN1

Part 3: Enzymes

  • Figure 3 shows enzyme activity at different NH4 concentrations
    • X axis: NH4 concentration
    • Y axis: Enzyme activity
  • Enzymes Studied:
    • NADPH
    • NAD-DGH
    • GS Transferase
  • NADPH activity consistently decreased with increased NH4
  • NAD-GDH activity consistently increased with increased NH4
  • GS Transferase and Synthetase decreased slightly until 60 mM, but then leveled off with increased NH4
  • The conclusion of the paper is that that the nitrogen metabolism of S. cerevisiae is regulated by ammonia concentration
    • The species may have an ammonia sensor

Word Definitions

  1. link title
  2. link title
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